groundwater flow
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2022 ◽  
Vol 173 ◽  
pp. 107400
Yu Xu ◽  
Zijun Li ◽  
Junjian Wang ◽  
Yin Chen ◽  
Rongrong Li ◽  

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 255
Marko Šrajbek ◽  
Lado Kranjčević ◽  
Ivan Kovač ◽  
Ranko Biondić

Nitrates are one of the most common groundwater contaminants and they come from different sources. The paper presents a study of groundwater quality at Varaždin wellfield in the north part of Croatia. The nitrate concentration at this location has been above the maximum allowed concentration for several decades, which has made the opening of new wellfields costly. Based on the previously developed groundwater flow model, a model that covers the narrow area of the wellfield is developed. The influential zone of the observed wellfield in working conditions is determined. Based on the developed model, the sources of nitrate pollution are located, which can be generally divided into non-point and point sources. Considering the time of groundwater retention in the horizontal flow, it is concluded that the water protection zones are marked following the applicable ordinance. Based on the developed groundwater flow model at the observed wellfield, a simulation of nitrate pollution propagation by advection and dispersion processes is performed. The simulation results point out the location of the poultry landfill as the largest source of nitrate pollution. However, poultry farms, which are located in the influence area of the wellfield, also contribute significantly to the nitrate concentration at the wellfield.

2022 ◽  
Jesus Alberto Casillas-Trasvina ◽  
Bart Rogiers ◽  
Koen Beerten ◽  
Laurent Wouters ◽  
Kristine Walraevens

Abstract. Heat is a naturally occurring widespread groundwater tracer that can be used to identify flow patterns in groundwater systems. Temperature measurements, being relatively inexpensive and effortless to gather, represent a valuable source of information which can be exploited to reduce uncertainties on groundwater flow, and e.g. support performance assessment studies on waste disposal sites. In a lowland setting, however, hydraulic gradients are typically small, and whether temperature measurements can be used to inform us about catchment-scale groundwater flow remains an open question. For the Neogene aquifer in Flanders, groundwater flow and solute transport models have been developed in the framework of safety and feasibility studies for the underlying Boom Clay Formation as potential host rock for geological disposal of radioactive waste. However, the simulated fluxes by these models are still subject to large uncertainties, as they are typically constrained by hydraulic heads only. In the current study we use a state-of-the-art 3D steady-state groundwater flow model, calibrated against hydraulic head measurements, to build a 3D transient heat-transport model, for assessing the use of heat as an additional state variable, in a lowland setting, at the catchment scale. We therefore use temperature-depth (TD) profiles as additional state variable observations for inverse conditioning. Furthermore, a Holocene paleo-temperature time curve was constructed based on paleo-temperature reconstructions in Europe from several sources in combination with land-surface temperature (LST) imagery remote sensing monthly data from 2001 to 2019 (retrieved from NASA’s MODIS). The aim of the research is to understand the mechanisms of heat transport and to characterize the temperature distribution and dynamics in the Neogene aquifer. The simulation results clearly underline advection/convection and conduction as the major heat transport mechanisms, with a reduced role of advection/convection in zones where flux magnitudes are low, which suggests temperature is a useful indicator also in a lowland setting. Furthermore, performed scenarios highlight the important roles of i) surface hydrological features and withdrawals driving local groundwater flow systems, and ii) the inclusion of subsurface features like faults in the conceptualization and development of hydrogeological investigations. These findings serve as a proxy of the influence of advective transport and barrier/conduit role of faults, particularly the Rauw Fault in this case, and suggest that solutes released from the Boom Clay might be affected in similar ways.

Ali Mohtashami ◽  
Seyed Arman Hashemi Monfared ◽  
Gholamreza Azizyan ◽  
Abolfazl Akbarpour

Abstract The complicated behavior of groundwater system in an arid aquifer is generally studied by solving the governing equations using either analytical or numerical methods. In this regard, analytical methods are just for some aquifers with regular boundaries. Numerical methods used for this aim are finite difference (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) which are engaged for some simple aquifers. Using them in the complex cases with irregular boundaries has some shortcomings, depended on meshes. In this study, meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method based on the moving kriging (MK) approximation function is used to simulate groundwater flow in steady state over three aquifers, two standard and a real field aquifer. Moving kriging function known as new function which reduces the uncertain parameter. For the first aquifer, a simple rectangular aquifer, MLPG-MK indicates good agreement with analytical solutions. In the second one, aquifer conditions get more complicated. However, MLPG-MK reveals results more accurate than FDM. RMSE for MLPG-MK and FDM is 0.066 and 0.322 m respectively. In the third aquifer, Birjand unconfined aquifer located in Iran is investigated. In this aquifer, there are 190 extraction wells. The geometry of the aquifer is irregular as well. With this challenging issues, MLPG-MK again shows satisfactory accuracy. As the RMSE for MLPG-MK and FDM are 0.483 m and 0.566 m. therefore, planning for this aquifer based on the MLPG-MK is closer to reality.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 201
Weicheng Lo ◽  
Sanidhya Nika Purnomo ◽  
Bondan Galih Dewanto ◽  
Dwi Sarah ◽  

This study was carried out to assess land subsidence due to excessive groundwater abstraction in the northern region of Semarang City by integrating the application of both numerical models and geodetic measurements, particularly those based on the synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) technique. Since 1695, alluvial deposits caused by sedimentations have accumulated in the northern part of Semarang City, in turn resulting in changes in the coastline and land use up to the present. Commencing in 1900, excessive groundwater withdrawal from deep wells in the northern section of Semarang City has exacerbated natural compaction and aggravated the problem of land subsidence. In the current study, a groundwater model equivalent to the hydrogeological system in this area was developed using MODFLOW to simulate the hydromechanical coupling of groundwater flow and land subsidence. The numerical computation was performed starting with the steady-state flow model from the period of 1970 to 1990, followed by the model of transient flow and land subsidence from the period of 1990 to 2010. Our models were calibrated with deformation data from field measurements collected from various sources (e.g., leveling, GPS, and InSAR) for simulation of land subsidence, as well as with the hydraulic heads from observation wells for simulation of groundwater flow. Comparison of the results of our numerical calculations with recorded observations led to low RMSEs, yet high R2 values, mathematically indicating that the simulation outcomes are in good agreement with monitoring data. The findings in the present study also revealed that land subsidence arising from groundwater pumping poses a serious threat to the northern part of Semarang City. Two groundwater management measures are proposed and the future development of land subsidence is accordingly projected until 2050. Our study shows quantitatively that the greatest land subsidence occurs in Genuk District, with a magnitude of 36.8 mm/year. However, if the suggested groundwater management can be implemented, the rate and affected area of land subsidence can be reduced by up to 59% and 76%, respectively.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 179
Francesco Fiorillo ◽  
Libera Esposito ◽  
Guido Leone ◽  
Mauro Pagnozzi

The Poiseuille and Darcy laws describe the velocity of groundwater flow under laminar conditions. These laws were deducted empirically in conduit and porous systems, respectively, and are widely used to model the groundwater flow. The analytical relationship between these hydraulic laws has been found by draining a tank-reservoir. Based on equations found, the discharge in a conduit under the Poiseuille law can be transformed in the same amount flowing inside a darcian system, and vice versa. This transformation occurs, for example, in karst aquifers, from the matrix to karst conduits during discharge phases, and from conduits to matrix during recharge phases.

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