eastern mediterranean
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Hesham M. Hamoda ◽  
Sharon Hoover ◽  
Jeff Bostic ◽  
Atif Rahman ◽  
Khalid Saaed

Background: Schools provide an exceptional opportunity for mental health promotion and intervention. Aims: To describe the development of a World Health Organization (WHO) School Mental Health Program (SMHP) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Methods: Two tenets guided development of the SMHP: (1) it used a multitiered system of support framework including 3 tiers of interventions (universal, early and targeted); and (2) interventions must be feasible for implementation by non-mental health professionals. Results: The WHO SMHP is organized into a background section, followed by 3 modules: Social–Emotional Childhood Development; Mental Health Promoting Schools (Promotion and Prevention); and Addressing Student Mental Health Problems in Your Classroom, including specific classroom strategies and case examples. Conclusion: Developing an appropriate curriculum sensitive to the needs of individual countries requires involvement of those familiar with schooling in those countries, with mental health priorities and practices that promote mental health, and to coalesce school staff, parents and community members in the service of their children.

Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Marika Galanidi ◽  
Argyro Zenetos

In the present work, we analysed time series data on the introduction of new non-indigenous species (NIS) in the Mediterranean between 1970 and 2017, aiming to arrive at recommendations concerning the reference period and provisional threshold values for the NIS trend indicator. We employed regression analysis and breakpoint structural analysis. Our results confirm earlier findings that the reference conditions differ for the four Mediterranean subregions, and support a shortening of the reporting cycle from six to three years, with a two-year time lag for the ensuing assessment. Excluding Lessepsian fishes and parasites, the reference period, defined as the most recent time segment with stable mean new NIS values, was estimated as 1997–2017 for the eastern Mediterranean, 2012–2017 for the central Mediterranean, 2000–2017 for the Adriatic and 1970–2017 for the western Mediterranean. These findings are interpreted primarily on the basis of a basin scale temperature regime shift in the late 1990s, shifts in driving forces such as shellfish culture, and as a result of intensified research efforts and citizen scientist initiatives targeting NIS in the last decade. The threshold values, i.e., the three-year average new NIS values during the reference period, are indicative and will ultimately depend on the choice of species and pathways to be used in the calculations. This is discussed through the prism of target setting in alignment with specific management objectives.

2022 ◽  
Zhen Wu ◽  
Dikla Aharonovich ◽  
Dalit Roth-Rosenberg ◽  
Osnat Weissberg ◽  
Tal Luzzatto-Knaan ◽  

Marine phytoplankton are responsible for about half of the photosynthesis on Earth. Many are mixotrophs, combining photosynthesis with heterotrophic assimilation of organic carbon but the relative contribution of these two carbon sources is not well quantified. Here, single-cell measurements reveal that Prochlorococcus at the base of the photic zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are obtaining only ~20% of carbon required for growth by photosynthesis. Consistently, laboratory-calibrated evaluations of Prochlorococcus photosynthesis indicate that carbon fixation is systematically too low to support published in situ growth rates in the deep photic layer of the Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, agent-based model simulations show that mixotrophic cells maintain realistic growth rates and populations 10s of meters deeper than obligate photo-autotrophs, deepening the nutricline and Deep Chlorophyll Maximum by ~20 m. Time-series of Prochlorococcus ecotype-abundance from the subtropical North Atlantic and North Pacific suggest that up to 30% of the Prochlorococcus cells live where light intensity is not enough to sustain obligate photo-autotrophic populations during warm, stratified periods. Together, these data and models suggest that mixotrophy underpins the ecological success of a large fraction of the global Prochlorococcus population and its collective genetic diversity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-20
Kimonas Koemtzopoulos ◽  
Styliani Adamantopoulou ◽  
Panagiotis Dendrinos ◽  
Anastasia Komnenou ◽  
Eleni Tounta ◽  

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Ahmad H. Y. Abu Hammad ◽  
Ala A. M. Salameh ◽  
Riad Qara Fallah

This study aimed at analysis of the general-index change for the mean annual and seasonal precipitation in six stations in Latakia Governorate (Syria). The data of precipitation were collected for 40 consecutive years (1970–2010) in order to figure out the extent of the changes and variability in precipitation rates and the impact of this change on changes in the potential density that might cause extremely high or low precipitation rates according to Gumbel distribution of the extreme precipitation rates. Results revealed a decrease of the annual precipitation rates in all stations, the reduction in precipitation ranged from 46 to 210 mm during the whole period of the study. Spring, however, recorded the highest and statistically significant reduction, which reached 46–210 mm, while winter precipitation increased by 21–82 mm. Spring also has witnessed a decrease of about 3–9% of the total annual precipitation as compared to winter precipitation which increased by 5–8% of the total. The potential density of extremely high winter precipitation rates increased in all stations as indicated from Gumbel distribution in winter, and a greater increase took place in the probabilities of occurrence of the extremely low spring precipitation rates. This shows significant probability of occurrence of drought during spring season. By contrast, probabilities of winter precipitation rates increased more, thus winter is relatively more humid than before and spring is relatively drier than before.

Hana Taha ◽  
Moath Nasraween ◽  
Yousef Khader ◽  
Lujain Al Omari ◽  
Vanja Berggren

Background: Shawerma is a popular traditional food in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the shawerma handlers’ compliance with food safety practices and determine the microbial load and pathogenic organisms in the ready-to-eat chicken shawerma sandwiches in the restaurants of Amman, Jordan. Methods: This cross-sectional study used mixed methods including observational checklists to determine the compliance of food safety practices by 120 chicken shawerma handlers from 40 randomly selected restaurants in Amman. Additionally, pathogenic microorganisms were assessed by laboratory analysis in the ready-to-eat chicken shawerma sandwiches. Results: Only 2.5% and 10% complied, respectively, with separating knives and boards used for chicken from the ones used for vegetables. The compliance for maintaining proper temperatures for freezers and chillers were only 62% and 67%, respectively. As for hand-washing techniques and using disposable drying papers, the adherence was 5% and 7.5%, respectively. Laboratory analysis showed that 27.5% of the ready-to-eat shawerma had unacceptable levels of microorganisms. Conclusion: Our findings showed poor compliance of food safety practices in chicken shawerma restaurants of Amman. There is a need for capacity building and periodic evaluations of food handlers’ knowledge and practices within a comprehensive food safety program, carried out by qualified trainers. Keywords: chicken shawerma, food safety, Jordan

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Katharine M. Grant ◽  
Udara Amarathunga ◽  
Jessica D. Amies ◽  
Pengxiang Hu ◽  
Yao Qian ◽  

AbstractDark organic-rich layers (sapropels) have accumulated in Mediterranean sediments since the Miocene due to deep-sea dysoxia and enhanced carbon burial at times of intensified North African run-off during Green Sahara Periods (GSPs). The existence of orbital precession-dominated Saharan aridity/humidity cycles is well known, but lack of long-term, high-resolution records hinders understanding of their relationship with environmental evolution. Here we present continuous, high-resolution geochemical and environmental magnetic records for the Eastern Mediterranean spanning the past 5.2 million years, which reveal that organic burial intensified 3.2 Myr ago. We deduce that fluvial terrigenous sediment inputs during GSPs doubled abruptly at this time, whereas monsoon run-off intensity remained relatively constant. We hypothesize that increased sediment mobilization resulted from an abrupt non-linear North African landscape response associated with a major increase in arid:humid contrasts between GSPs and intervening dry periods. The timing strongly suggests a link to the onset of intensified northern hemisphere glaciation.

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