Energy Intensive Industries
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2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 109
Author(s):  
Iman Al-Ayouty ◽  
Hoda Hassaballa ◽  
Maha El Hini

Most energy intensive industries are high carbon dioxide (CO2) emitters. As CO2 emissions show large discrepancies between regions, it is important to test for spatial dependence when estimating emissions. The present study thus examines spatial dependence of CO2 emissions for the twenty-seven governorates of Egypt over the period 2007-2016. Determinants of CO2 emissions include road network density, investments in fixed assets, the structure of economic activity, the share of females, and the various levels of education in the regions’ respective population. Incorporating the spatial dimension, as well as using female and educational levels amongst the determinants, are contributions to research done on CO2 emissions in Egypt. Estimation results indicate that CO2 emissions across governorates are spatially-random rather than spatially-dependent. The study therefore uses a generalized method of moments (GMM) dynamic panel model. The lag of CO2 emissions per capita, net fixed capital formation, share of illiterates in the working age population, and the share of services in economic activity are significant and have positive effects (increasing emissions). The share of females in working age population, and the share of agriculture in economic activity are significant and have negative effects (diminishing emissions). Policy implications based on the study results are given.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hans Böhm ◽  
Markus Lehner ◽  
Thomas Kienberger

Energy-intensive industries still produce high amounts of non-renewable CO2 emissions. These emissions cannot easily be fully omitted in the short- and mid-term by electrification or switching to renewable energy carriers, as they either are of inevitable origin (e.g., mineral carbon in cement production) or require a long-term transition of well-established process chains (e.g., metal ore reduction). Therefore, carbon capture and utilization (CCU) has been widely discussed as an option to reduce net CO2 emissions. In this context, the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) through power-to-methane (PtM) process is expected to possess considerable value in future energy systems. Considering current low-temperature electrolysis technologies that exhibit electric efficiencies of 60–70%el, LHV and methanation with a caloric efficiency of 82.5%LHV, the conventional PtM route is inefficient. However, overall efficiencies of >80%el, LHV could be achieved using co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 in combination with thermal integration of waste heat from methanation. The present study investigates the techno-economic performance of such a thermally integrated system in the context of different application scenarios that allow for the establishment of a closed carbon cycle. Considering potential technological learning and scaling effects, the assessments reveal that compared to that of decoupled low-temperature systems, SNG generation cost of <10 c€/kWh could be achieved. Additional benefits arise from the direct utilization of by-products oxygen in the investigated processes. With the ability to integrate renewable electricity sources such as wind or solar power in addition to grid supply, the system can also provide grid balancing services while minimizing operational costs. Therefore, the implementation of highly-efficient power-to-gas systems for CCU applications is identified as a valuable option to reduce net carbon emissions for hard-to-abate sectors. However, for mid-term economic viability over fossils intensifying of regulatory measures (e.g., CO2 prices) and the intense use of synergies is considered mandatory.


Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1244
Author(s):  
Yang Yu ◽  
Tianchang Wang

With the deepening of urbanization and industrialization, as well as the exacerbation of energy consumption, China is facing a severe situation in which nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction is imperative. In this study, it is aimed to put forward countermeasures and suggestions to reduce NOx emissions by analyzing the impact and mechanism of new urbanization, the agglomeration of energy-intensive industries and mutual interactions on China’s NOx emissions. By analyzing the data of 30 provinces in China from 2006 to 2017, this paper adopted the system generalized method of moments (SYS-GMM) and intermediary effect model to introduce four variables, such as: energy efficiency, human capital, industrial structure and energy structure, which were for empirical analysis. From the results, it was shown that: (1) NOx emissions in China have an accumulated effect; (2) new urbanization inhibits NOx emissions, whilst the agglomeration of energy-intensive industries intensifies NOx emissions. New urbanization weakens the negative impact of the agglomeration of energy-intensive industries on NOx emissions reduction and, (3) among the impacts of new urbanization on NOx emissions, the energy efficiency and human capital reflect the intermediary effect mechanism. At the same time, in the impact of the agglomeration of energy-intensive industries on NOx emissions, the industrial structure and energy structure show the mechanisms of the intermediary effect and masking effect, respectively.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10324
Author(s):  
Jieming Chou ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Zhongxiu Wang ◽  
Wenjie Dong

The China–US trade conflict will inevitably have a negative impact on China’s trade imports and exports, industrial development, and economic growth, and will affect the achievement of climate change goals. In the short term, the impact of the trade conflict on China’s import and export trade will cause the carbon emissions contained in traded commodities to change accordingly. To assess the impact of the trade conflict on China’s climate policy, this paper combines a model from the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) and the input–output analysis method and calculates the carbon emissions in international trade before and after the conflict. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The trade war has led to a sharp decline in China–US trade, but for China as a whole, imports and exports have not changed much; (2) China’s export emissions have changed little, its import emissions have dropped slightly, and its net emissions have increased; and (3) China’s exports are still concentrated in energy-intensive industries. Changes in trade will bring challenges to China’s balancing of climate and trade exigencies. China–US cooperation based on energy and technology will help China cope with climate change after the trade conflict.


Author(s):  
Ruipeng Tan ◽  
Boqiang Lin

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yao Chen ◽  
Jing Wu

Abstract As the major energy consumers, energy-intensive industries are the key players in achieving carbon emission reduction targets. Grasping the carbon emission reduction potential has a direct impact on the implementation of the carbon emission reduction policies of China. The paper builds a super-Slack Based Model(SBM) considering this undesirable output, and calculates the carbon emission efficiency. Then, the Meta-Frontier Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index (MF-MLPI) is constructed to dynamically analyse the growth rate changes of the carbon emission efficiency and the regional differences in energy-intensive industries. Furthermore, the carbon emission reduction potential of the energy-intensive industries in various economic regions of China is discussed and the conclusions are as follows: there is a big difference in the carbon emission Technology Gap Ratios (TGRs) of the energy-intensive industries in different economic regions; the growth rate of the carbon emission efficiency of energy-intensive industries shows a trend of first declining and then slowly recovering while the carbon reduction potential generally shows a trend of decreasing and then rising; and the carbon emission reduction potential in the eastern region keeps decreasing. The following is recommended: the government should rationally distribute energy-intensive industries, promote industrial structure adjustment, optimize the energy structure according to the regional industrial advantages; increase investment in R&D, promote energy technology innovation in energy-intensive industries; prioritize the promotion of carbon peaks on key emission industries and regional, formulate differentiated plans for the regions and industries with different carbon emission reduction potentials.


Author(s):  
Thanh Quang Ngo

Author(s):  
Guodong Sun ◽  
Xuejing Duan ◽  
Bo Hao ◽  
Afshin Davarpanah

Nitrogen oxides are considered as one of the greenhouse gases. Among the most significant emission sources for this gas is a natural gas-fired power plant. The United Nations General assembly suggested in 1988 that human activities can negatively impact weather patterns, and thus they should be controlled. This control policy can improve the efficiency of final consumers such as power plants, cars, or other energy-intensive industries. In this paper, the existing strategies and explicitly making the dry low nitrogen oxides burner reduce greenhouse gases in power plants are explored. The geometry of the burner has been produced in a three-dimensional form in GAMBIT software, and the results of the simulation have been expressed through FLUENT software. Contours of pressure, temperature, and velocity of the fluid in the furnace are also derived. It is concluded that the dry low nitrogen oxides burners plan has a better result compared with other strategies.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (15) ◽  
pp. 4700
Author(s):  
Andrius Zuoza ◽  
Vaida Pilinkienė

Climate change and efforts to mitigate it have given rise to an interest in the relationship between industry competitiveness, energy efficiency, and carbon emissions. A better understanding of this relationship can be essential for economic and environmental decision-makers. This paper presents empirical research evaluating industry competitiveness through the factors of energy efficiency and carbon emission in Europe’s most energy-intensive industries. The designed industry competitiveness measure index consists of seven components, grouped into three equally weighted sub-indexes: export performance, energy, and environmental. The export performance of the industry is described by the industry export growth rate, the share of the industry’s export, and the effects on the industry’s competitiveness of changes in a country’s export. The energy intensity of the industry and energy prices are integrated into the energy sub-index. The environmental sub-index consists of the industry’s emissions intensity, and the ratio of freely allocated allowances and verified emissions indicators. The findings indicate that countries with the highest index value also have a positive energy intensity and carbon emission indicator value. The average index value of each industry gradually reduces to zero, and the standard deviation of the index value shows a diminishing trend throughout all sectors, which implies that competitiveness in all sectors is increasing and that all countries are nearing the industry average. The ANOVA results show that: (1) the competitiveness index value was statistically significantly different in the investigated countries; (2) the competitiveness index value was statistically non-significantly different in the investigated industries; (3) there was a significant effect of the interaction between country and industry on the competitiveness index value. These results suggest that the country itself and industry/country interaction significantly affect the competitiveness index. However, it should be mentioned that industry per se does not substantially affect the competitiveness index score.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8304
Author(s):  
Shijie Yang ◽  
Yunjia Wang ◽  
Rongqing Han ◽  
Yong Chang ◽  
Xihua Sun

In recent years, China has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitter. CO2 emissions from high-energy-intensive industries account for more than three-quarters of the total industrial carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, it is important to enhance our understanding of the main factors affecting carbon dioxide emissions in high-energy-intensive industries. In this paper, we firstly explore the main factors affecting CO2 emissions in high-energy-intensive industries, including industrial structure, per capita gross domestic product (GDP), population, technological progress and foreign direct investment. To achieve this, we rely on exploratory regression combined with the threshold criteria. Secondly, a geographically weighted regression model is employed to explore local-spatial heterogeneity, capturing the spatial variations of the regression parameters across the Chinese provinces. The results show that the growth of per capita GDP and population increases CO2 emissions; by contrast, the growth of the services sector’s share in China’s gross domestic product could cause a decrease in CO2 emissions. Effects of technological progress on CO2 emissions in high-energy-intensive industries are negative in 2007 and 2013, whereas the coefficient is positive in 2018. Throughout the study period, regression coefficients of foreign direct investment are positive. This paper provides valuable insights into the relationship between driving factors and CO2 emissions, and also gives provides empirical support for local governments to mitigate CO2 emissions.


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