air pollutants
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
H. S. Yousaf ◽  
M. Abbas ◽  
N. Ghani ◽  
H. Chaudhary ◽  
A. Fatima ◽  

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups’ levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 141
Yan Yang ◽  
Wei Zhou ◽  
Qian Gao ◽  
Delong Zhao ◽  
Xiange Liu ◽  

Many studies have shown that air pollutants have complex impacts on urban precipitation. Meteorological weather station and satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product data from the last 20 years, combined with simulation results from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem), this paper focuses on the effects of air pollutants on summer precipitation in different regions of Beijing. These results showed that air pollution intensity during the summer affected the precipitation contribution rate (PCR) of plains and mountainous regions in the Beijing area, especially in the plains. Over the past 20 years, plains PCR increased by ~10% when the AOD augmented by 0.15, whereas it decreased with lower pollution levels. In contrast, PCR in mountainous areas decreased with higher pollution levels and increased with lower pollution levels. Our analysis from model results indicated that aerosol increases reduce the effective particle size of cloud droplets and raindrops. Smaller cloud raindrops more readily transport to high air layers and participate in the generation of ice-phase substances in the clouds, increasing the total amount of cloud water in the air in a certain time, which ultimately enhanced precipitation intensity on the plains. The removal of pollutants caused by increased precipitation in the plains decreased rainfall levels in mountainous areas.

Prof. (Dr.) S. M. Safdar Ashraf ◽  

Background: The environmental pollution is a growing world problem specifically in developed & developing countries. In these areas G.I.T disorders & diarrheal diseases have replaced by airborne environmental disorders.Methods: Literatures was reviewed on the subject to find out the knowledge regarding Environmental threats of air pollution & its effects on the health of human body. Data and details have been located, selected, extracted and synthesized from different national & international Journals, websites, Proceedings, books, google scholar etc.Result & Conclusion: Changes are taking place in air regularly. Different pollutants are being created from different sources. Indoor air pollution is common among underdeveloped & developing nations. To improve health situation different professional, have to play their roles. Effects of air pollution are sometimes general in nature otherwise may be immediate or delayed. Leading causes of death is cardiovascular diseases like IHD are now being declared as airborne. Emergent airborne diseases are more than 30 like COVID 19 only result in 43.6 lakhs death so far. Toxic & hazardous chemicals are present in air in the form of allergens, neurotoxin, mutagen, carcinogen etc. Air pollutants are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, Benzene, Ozone, Lead, sulphates, SPM etc. Meteorological effects on health are also related with air including season, atmospheric pressure, heat, cold etc. Indoor air pollutants have also specific health effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Kuan-Chin Wang ◽  
Yuan-Ting C. Lo ◽  
Chun-Cheng Liao ◽  
Yann-Yuh Jou ◽  
Han-Bin Huang

Background: Little epidemiological research has investigated the associations of air pollutant exposure over various time windows with older adults' symptoms of depression. This study aimed to analyze the relationships of long- and short-term ambient air pollution exposure (to coarse particulate matter, O3, SO2, CO, and NOx) with depressive symptoms in a sample of community-dwelling older adults.Methods: A sample of older adults (n = 1,956) was recruited from a nationally representative multiple-wave study (Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging). Between 1996 and 2007, four waves of surveys investigated depressive symptoms by using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression questionnaire. We approximated air pollutant concentrations from 1995 to 2007 by using daily concentration data for five air pollutants at air quality monitoring stations in the administrative zone of participants' residences. after adjusting for covariates, we applied generalized linear mixed models to analyze associations for different exposure windows (7-, 14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 180-day and 1-year moving averages).Results: In a one-pollutant model, long- and short-term exposure to CO and NOx was associated with heightened risks of depressive symptoms; the odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval for each interquartile range (IQR) increment in CO at 7-, 14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 180-day and 1-year moving averages were 1.232 (1.116, 1.361), 1.237 (1.136, 1.348), 1.216 (1.128, 1.311), 1.231 (1.133, 1.338), 1.224 (1.124, 1.332), 1.192 (1.106, 1.285), 1.228 (1.122, 1.344), and 1.180 (1.102, 1.265), respectively. Those for each IQR increment in NOx were 1.312 (1.158, 1.488), 1.274 (1.162, 1.398), 1.295 (1.178, 1.432), 1.310 (1.186, 1.447), 1.345 (1.209, 1.496), 1.348 (1.210, 1.501), 1.324 (1.192, 1.471), and 1.219 (1.130, 1.314), respectively. The exposure to PM10, O3, and SO2 over various windows were not significant. In the two-pollutant model, only the associations of NOx exposure with depressive symptoms remained robust after adjustment for any other pollutant.Conclusions: Exposure to traffic-associated air pollutants could increase depression risks among older adults.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Ji-Hyeon Kim ◽  
Jin-Ho Kim ◽  
Hyo-Sik Kim ◽  
Hyun-Ji Kim ◽  
Suk-Hwan Kang ◽  

As climates change around the world, concern regarding environmental pollutants emitted into the atmosphere is increasing. The cement industry consistently produces more than 4000 million metric tons of cement per year. However, the problem of air pollutants being emitted from the calcination process is becoming more critical because their amount increases proportionally with cement production. Each country has established regulatory standards for pollutant emission. Accordingly, the cement industry is equipped with facilities to reduce air pollutants, one of which is the NOx removal process. NOx reduction processes under combustion conditions are modified to minimize NOx generation, and the generated NOx is removed through post-treatment. In terms of NOx removal efficiency, the post-treatment process effectively changes the combustion conditions during calcination. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) processes are post-treatment environmental facilities for NOx reduction. Accordingly, considering the stringent NOx emission standards in the cement industry, SNCR is essential, and SCR is selectively applied. Therefore, this paper introduces nitrogen oxide among air pollutants emitted from the South Korean cement industry and summarizes the technologies adapted to mitigate the emission of NOx by cement companies in South Korea.

2022 ◽  
pp. oemed-2021-107833
Giovanni Veronesi ◽  
Sara De Matteis ◽  
Giuseppe Calori ◽  
Nicola Pepe ◽  
Marco M Ferrario

ObjectivesTo investigate the association between long-term exposure to airborne pollutants and the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 up to March 2021 in a prospective study of residents in Varese city.MethodsCitizens of Varese aged ≥18 years as of 31 December 2019 were linked by residential address to 2018 average annual exposure to outdoor concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, NO and ozone modelled using the Flexible Air quality Regional Model (FARM) chemical transport model. Citizens were further linked to regional datasets for COVID-19 case ascertainment (positive nasopharyngeal swab specimens) and to define age, sex, living in a residential care home, population density and comorbidities. We estimated rate ratios and additional numbers of cases per 1 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants from single- and bi-pollutant Poisson regression models.ResultsThe 62 848 residents generated 4408 cases. Yearly average PM2.5 exposure was 12.5 µg/m3. Age, living in a residential care home, history of stroke and medications for diabetes, hypertension and obstructive airway diseases were independently associated with COVID-19. In single-pollutant multivariate models, PM2.5 was associated with a 5.1% increase in the rate of COVID-19 (95% CI 2.7% to 7.5%), corresponding to 294 additional cases per 100 000 person-years. The association was confirmed in bi-pollutant models; excluding subjects in residential care homes; and further adjusting for area-based indicators of socioeconomic level and use of public transportation. Similar findings were observed for PM10, NO2 and NO. Ozone was associated with a 2% decrease in disease rate, the association being reversed in bi-pollutant models.ConclusionsLong-term exposure to low levels of air pollutants, especially PM2.5, increased the incidence of COVID-19. The causality warrants confirmation in future studies; meanwhile, government efforts to further reduce air pollution should continue.

2022 ◽  
Xiaohui Lin ◽  
Ruqi Yang ◽  
Wen Zhang ◽  
Ning Zeng ◽  
Yu Zhao ◽  

Abstract Background: Air pollution in China has raised great concerns due to its adverse effects on air quality, human health, and climate. Emissions of air pollutants (APs) are inherently linked with CO2 emissions through fossil-energy consumption. Knowledge of the characteristics of APs and CO2 emissions and their relationships is fundamentally important in the pursuit of co-benefits in addressing air quality and climate issues in China. However, the linkages and interactions between APs and CO2 in China are not well understood.Results: Here, we conducted an ensemble study of six bottom-up inventories to identify the underlying drivers of APs and CO2 emissions growth and to explore their linkages in China. The results showed that, during 1980-2015, the power and industry sectors contributed 61–79% to China’s overall emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2. In addition, the residential and industrial sectors were large emitters (77–85%) of PM10, PM2.5, CO, BC, and OC. The emissions of CH4, N2O and NH3 were dominated by the agriculture sector (46–82%), while the share of CH4 emissions in the energy sector increased since 2010. During 1980-2015, APs and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from residential sources generally decreased over time, while the transportation sector increased its impact on recent emissions, particularly for NOx and NMVOC. Since implementation of stringent pollution control measures and accompanying technological improvements in 2013, China has effectively limited pollution emissions (e.g., growth rates of –10% per year for PM and –20% for SO2) and slowed down the increasing trend of carbon emissions from the power and industrial sectors. We also found that areas with high emissions of CO, NOx, NMVOC, and SO2 also emitted large amounts of CO2, which demonstrates the possible common sources of APs and GHGs. Moreover, we found significant correlations between CO2 and APs (e.g., NOx, CO, SO2, and PM) emissions in the top 5% high-emitting grid cells, with more than 60% common/overlapped grid cells during 2010–2015. Conclusions: We found significant homology in spatial and temporal aspects for CO2, and NOx, CO, SO2, and PM emissions in China. We targeted sectorial and spatial APs and GHGs emission hot-spots, which help for management and policy-making of collaborative reductions of them. This comprehensive analysis over 6 datasets improves our understanding of APs and GHGs emissions in China during the period of rapid industrialization from 1980 to 2015. This study helps elucidate the linkages between APs and CO2 from an integrated perspective, and provides insights for future synergistic emissions reduction.

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