An isolation bearing consumes most of the seismic energy of a structure and is vulnerable to destruction. The performance of isolation bearings is usually evaluated according to the global stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. However, the early minor damage in isolation bearings is difficult to identify. In this study, a damage detection scheme for the isolation bearing is proposed by focusing on the antiresonance of the quasiperiodic structure. Firstly, a laminated rubber bearing was simplified as a monocoupled periodic rubber-steel structure. The characteristic equation of the driving point antiresonance frequency of the periodic system was achieved via the dynamic stiffness method. Secondly, the sensitivity coefficient of the driving point antiresonance, which was obtained from the first-order derivative of the antiresonance frequency, with respect to the damage scaling parameter was derived using the antiresonance frequency characteristic equation. Thirdly, the optimised driving points of the antiresonance frequencies were selected by means of sensitivity analysis. Finally, from the measured changes in the antiresonance frequencies, the damage was identified by solving the sensitivity identification equation via a numerical optimisation method. The application of the proposed method to laminated rubber bearings under various damage cases demonstrates the feasibility of this method. This study has proven that changes in the shear modulus of each rubber layer can be identified accurately.
Rubber bearings are widely used for seismic retrofit of bridges because they reduce the seismic force by making the vibration period of the bridge longer and distributing the seismic force to all the piers. However, they have the disadvantage of being easily aged compared to steel bearings as well as having variations in the shear stiffness. The shear characteristic changes in the blended rubber for the rubber bearings were analyzed, specifically, the aging accelerated by heat. The higher the aging temperature and longer the exposure time, the greater is the maximum stress and strain at that time, and the greater is the shear stiffness. This implies that the seismic performance gradually deteriorates due to aging as the service period becomes longer. This can provide the basis for the mechanical model of the aging bearing.
Response characteristics of small-sized laminated rubber bearings (LRBs) with partial damage and total failure were investigated. For nuclear component seismic isolation, ultimate response characteristics are mainly reviewed using a beyond design basis earthquake (BDBE). Static tests, 3D shaking table tests, and verification analyses were performed using optional LRB design prototypes. During the static test, the hysteresis curve behavior from buckling to potential damage was observed by applying excessive shear deformation. The damaged rubber surface of the laminated section inside the LRB was checked through water jet cutting. A stress review by response spectrum analysis was performed to simulate the dynamic tests and predict seismic inputs’ intensity level that triggers LRB damage. Shaking table tests were executed to determine seismic response characteristics with partial damage and to confirm the stability of the superstructure when the supporting LRBs completely fail. Shear buckling in LRBs by high levels of BDBE may be quickly initiated via partial damage or total failure by the addition of torsional or rotational behavior caused by a change in the dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, the maximum seismic displacement can be limited within the range of the design interface due to the successive slip behavior, even during total LRB failure.
The stability of bridges in the face of earthquake hazards has always been the focus of construction engineering. At present, a large number of bridge construction has begun to use isolation rubber bearings to increase the seismic capacity of bridges. However, in the face of high-intensity earthquake disasters, the seismic performance of the bridge is gradually unable to meet, the main reason is the lack of relevant research on the seismic performance of the bridge in high seismic intensity area. Therefore, this study will explore the changes of the bridge in the face of high-strength earthquake, and try to use high damping rubber bearings for the isolation design of the bridge. By establishing the finite element model of continuous bridge combined with isolation rubber bearing, the numerical calculation of bridge element is carried out on this basis, and the isolation effect of isolation rubber bearing is analyzed. The results show that the compression resistance and shear resistance of the isolated rubber bearing are strong. Under the influence of different seismic waves, the maximum displacement of the bearing is 0.131 m and the maximum horizontal force is 389.6 kN, which are lower than the allowable value of the bridge, and the overall seismic performance of the bridge has been significantly improved, which can play a good theoretical support in the construction of continuous bridges in high seismic intensity areas.
Necessity of constructing multi-storied buildings is increasing these days. But they are more prone to severe damage due to earthquakes. Base isolation is one of the most powerful tools pertaining to the passive structural vibration control technologies. The structure above the ground, is separated from the effects of earthquake forces by introducing a mechanism that helps the structure to hover. This project deals with analysis of 10 storey RCC, Steel and Composite structures of different shapes with and without base isolation in various seismic zones by Response Spectrum Method using ETABS software. Lead rubber bearings designed as per UBC97 was used for base isolation. Plus shape was found to be most suitable for base isolation for RC structure, whereas for steel and composite structures rectangular and hollow shapes were found suitable. It was also observed that concrete structure performs best when base isolated, compared to other structures.