response characteristics
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2022 ◽  
Vol 237 ◽  
pp. 111870
Xueqiang Shi ◽  
Yutao Zhang ◽  
Xiaokun Chen ◽  
Yuanbo Zhang ◽  
Liu Rui ◽  

2022 ◽  
Long Wang ◽  
Wenhao Wang ◽  
Liuying Wang ◽  
Gu Liu ◽  
Chaoqun Ge ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 635
Kapil K. Goyal ◽  
Neeraj Sharma ◽  
Rahul Dev Gupta ◽  
Gurpreet Singh ◽  
Deepika Rani ◽  

In the present research, the AZ31 alloy is machined by wire-cut electric discharge machining (WEDM). The experiments were designed according to the Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The input process variables, namely servo feed (SF), pulse on-time (Ton), servo voltage (SV), and pulse off-time (Toff), were planned by BBD, and experiments were performed to investigate the cutting rate (CR) and recast layer thickness (RCL). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine the influence of machining variables on response characteristics. The empirical models developed for CR and RCL were solved using Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). Pareto optimal front is used for the collective optimization of CR and RCL. The optimal solution suggested by the hybrid approach of RSM-MOPSO is further verified using a confirmation test on the random setting indicated by the hybrid algorithm. It is found that the minimum RCL (6.34 µm) is obtained at SF: 1700; SV: 51 V; Toff: 10.5 µs; and Ton: 0.5 µs. However, maximum CR (3.18 m/min) is predicted at SF: 1900; SV: 40 V; Toff: 7 µs; and Ton: 0.9 µs. The error percentage of ±5.3% between the experimental results and predicted solutions confirms the suitability of the proposed hybrid approach for WEDM of AZ31.

Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Zhaojing Song ◽  
Junqian Li ◽  
Xiaoyan Li ◽  
Ketong Chen ◽  
Chengyun Wang ◽  

Analyzing the characteristics of rock brittleness in low-permeability mudstone and shale (MS) formations is imperative for efficient hydraulic fracturing stimulation. Rock brittleness depends on the mineral composition, organic matter abundance, and bedding structure. Based on the MS from Shahejie Formation mineral composition (clay mineral, felsic mineral, and calcareous mineral contents), total organic content, and bedding structure (laminated, laminar, and massive), six types of lithofacies were identified: clay-rich MS, felsic-rich MS, calcareous-rich MS, clay MS, felsic MS, and calcareous MS. The quartz, feldspar, calcite, and dolomite of the Shahejie Formation are brittle minerals. Consequently, lithofacies with high felsic and calcareous mineral contents are more brittle. In addition, laminated and laminar MS are also conducive to hydraulic fracturing. Therefore, laminated, organic-rich, and calcareous-rich MS are the dominant lithofacies for hydraulic fracturing in the Shahejie Formation. The lithofacies and brittleness index were predicted by the response characteristics between mineral compositions and logging curves. The 3521–3552 m section of well B11x is dominated by calcareous-rich MS with developed laminae, representing a favorable section for hydraulic fracturing. Fragile minerals and oil are widely developed in the lower part of the lower 1st member of the Shahejie Formation (Es1L) in the southwestern part of Zhaohuangzhuang-Suning, where hydraulic fracturing can be used to increase shale oil production.

2022 ◽  
pp. 001316442110694
Chet Robie ◽  
Adam W. Meade ◽  
Stephen D. Risavy ◽  
Sabah Rasheed

The effects of different response option orders on survey responses have been studied extensively. The typical research design involves examining the differences in response characteristics between conditions with the same item stems and response option orders that differ in valence—either incrementally arranged (e.g., strongly disagree to strongly agree) or decrementally arranged (e.g., strongly agree to strongly disagree). The present study added two additional experimental conditions—randomly incremental or decremental and completely randomized. All items were presented in an item-by-item format. We also extended previous studies by including an examination of response option order effects on: careless responding, correlations between focal predictors and criteria, and participant reactions, all the while controlling for false discovery rate and focusing on the size of effects. In a sample of 1,198 university students, we found little to no response option order effects on a recognized personality assessment vis-à-vis measurement equivalence, scale mean differences, item-level distributions, or participant reactions. However, the completely randomized response option order condition differed on several careless responding indices suggesting avenues for future research.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 173
Douyan Wang ◽  
Yu Hayashi ◽  
Takahiro Enoki ◽  
Kenta Nakahara ◽  
Tetsuya Arita ◽  

Recent years have seen numerous studies into how applying pulsed high electric fields (PEF) to living organisms induces various stress reactions. Plants produce glucose through photosynthesis and use this as a source of energy for living, yet there are few studies on the photosynthetic response characteristics when PEF is applied to growing plants. In this study, the photosynthetic response when electric fields of 10 to 100 V/mm were applied to light and dark-acclimated leaves of lettuce was measured by combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, and the exposure time was kept constant at 500 s. The responses to PEF with regard to the photosynthetic parameters of electron transfer rate (ETR), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), photosynthetic rate (A), and transpiration rate (E) were recorded during the experiment. Results showed that PEF can cause both the activation and deactivation of photosynthetic activity in lettuce, that there is an optimum value for activation, and that the application of excessive energy leads to inactivation. This study also found that stomata on both active and deactivated lettuce had been open to a greater extent than lettuce to which PEF had not been applied. All the results of statistical significance in this study were p < 0.05 and p < 0.01.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107754632110623
J Shayne Love ◽  
Kevin P McNamara ◽  
Michael J Tait ◽  
Trevor C Haskett

Annular tuned sloshing dampers equipped with damping screens are studied experimentally and analytically. A nonlinear multimodal model is presented to simulate the coupled response among the lowest order sloshing modes in a tank equipped with damping screens, which leads to velocity-squared damping. Shake table tests are conducted on annular tanks with various inner radii, water depths, screen orientations, and base excitation amplitudes. The proposed model is evaluated by comparing the predicted and measured sloshing forces, energy dissipation per cycle, and wave heights. The predicted sloshing forces and energy dissipation per cycle are in good agreement with the measured results. The wave heights show larger discrepancies, including phase shifts; however, the peak amplitudes are captured with reasonable accuracy for the tests conducted. Secondary resonances lead to multiple peaks in the frequency response plots when higher order sloshing modes become excited through modal coupling. Plots created to indicate which secondary resonances are likely to occur for a given liquid depth ratio indicate that it may not be possible to avoid all secondary resonances. Radial damping screens can be strategically positioned within the tank to provide the desired level of damping to the fundamental sloshing modes, as well as a reasonable amount of damping to higher order modes that are susceptible to secondary resonance excitation. Since existing linearized models for annular tuned sloshing dampers equipped with damping screens do not capture the important nonlinear response characteristics of these devices, the proposed model fills an important research gap necessary to facilitate their effective design.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 438
Linghai Han ◽  
Jiaquan Duan ◽  
Dingchao Qian ◽  
Yanfeng Gong ◽  
Yaodong Wang ◽  

The thermal efficiency of an efficient gasoline engine is only about 40% and it will produce a large number of harmful products. Curbing harmful emissions and enhancing thermal efficiency have always been the goals pursued and emission regulations are also being tightened gradually. As one of the main consumers of fossil fuels, automobile engines must further reduce fuel consumption and emissions to comply with the concept of low-carbon development, which will also help them compete with electric vehicles. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion combined with variable valve actuation (VVA) technology is one of the important ways to improve engine emissions and economy. HCCI combustion based on VVA can only be realized at small and medium loads. The actual application on the entire vehicle needs to be combined with spark ignition (SI) combustion to achieve full working condition coverage. Therefore, HCCI combustion needs fast valve response characteristics; however, the valve lift and timing of the existing VVA mechanisms are mostly controlled separately, resulting in poor valve response. In order to solve this problem, the cam driven hydraulic variable valve actuation (CDH-VVA) mechanism was designed. The valve lift and timing can be adjusted at the same time and the switching of valve lift and timing can be completed in 1~2 cycles. A set of combustion mode switching data is selected to show the response characteristics of the CDH-VVA mechanism. When switching from spark ignition (SI) to HCCI, it switches to HCCI combustion after only one combustion cycle and it switches to stable HCCI combustion after two combustion cycles, which proves the fast response characteristics of the CDH-VVA mechanism. At the same time, the CDH-VVA mechanism can form the intake port exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), as one type of internal EGR. This paper studies the HCCI combustion characteristics of the CDH-VVA mechanism in order to optimize it in the future and enable it to realize more forms of HCCI combustion. At 1000 rpm, if the maximum lift of the exhaust valve (MLEV) is higher than 5.0 mm or lower than 1.5 mm, HCCI combustion cannot operate stably, the range of excess air coefficient (λ) is largest when the MLEV is 4.5 mm, ranging from 1.0~1.5. Then, as the MLEV decreases, the range of λ becomes smaller. When the MLEV drops to 1.5 mm, the range of λ shortens to 1.0~1.3. The maximum value of the MLEV remains the same at the three engine speeds (1000 rpm, 1200 rpm and 1400 rpm), which is 5.0 mm. The minimum value of the MLEV gradually climbs as the engine speed increase, 1000 rpm: 1.5 mm, 1200 rpm: 2.0 mm, 1400 rpm: 3.0 mm. With the increase of engine speed, the range of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) gradually declines, 3.53~6.31 bar (1000 rpm), 4.11~6.75 bar (1200 rpm), 5.02~6.09 bar (1400 rpm), which proves that the HCCI combustion loads of the intake port EGR are high and cannot be extended to low loads. The cyclic variation of HCCI combustion basically climbs with the decrease of the MLEV and slightly jumps with the increase of the engine speed. At 1000 rpm, when the MLEV is 5.0 mm, the cyclic variation range is 0.94%~1.5%. As the MLEV drops to 1.5 mm, the cyclic variation range rises to 3.5%~4.5%. Taking the maximum value of the MLEV as an example, the cyclic variation range of 1000 rpm is 0.94%~1.5%, 1200 rpm becomes 1.5%~2.3% and 1400 rpm rises to 2.0%~2.5%.

2022 ◽  
Huisheng Gao ◽  
Huanhai Xin ◽  
Linbin Huang ◽  
Zhiyi Li ◽  
Wei Huang ◽  

<p>As synchronous generators (SGs) are extensively replaced by inverter-based generators (IBGs), modern power systems are facing complicated frequency stability problems. Conventionally, the frequency nadir and the rate of change of frequency (RoCoF) are the two main factors concerned by power system operators. However, these two factors heavily rely on simulations or experiments, especially in a power system with high-penetration IBGs, which offer limited theoretical insight into how the frequency response characteristics are affected by the devices. This paper aims at filling this gap. Firstly, we derive a formulation of the global frequency for an IBG-penetrated power system, referred to as common-mode frequency (CMF). The derived CMF is demonstrated to be more accurate than existing frequency definitions, e.g., the average system frequency (ASF). Then, a unified transfer function structure (UTFS) is proposed to approximate the frequency responses of different types of devices by focusing on three key parameters<a>, which dramatically reduces the complexity of frequency analysis. </a>On this basis, we introduce two evaluation indices, i.e., frequency drop depth coefficient (FDDC) and frequency drop slope coefficient (FDSC), to theoretically quantify the frequency nadir and the average RoCoF, respectively. Instead of relying on simulations or experiments, our method rigorously links the system’s frequency characteristics to the characteristics of heterogeneous devices, which enables an in-depth understanding regarding how devices affect the system frequency. Finally, the proposed indices are verified through simulations on a modified IEEE 39-bus test system. </p>

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