This paper presents the extension and validation of omni-failure envelopes for first-ply failure (FPF) and last-ply failure (LPF) analysis of advanced composite materials under general three-dimensional (3D) stress states. Phenomenological failure criteria based on invariant structural tensors are implemented to address failure events in multidirectional laminates using the “omni strain failure envelope” concept. This concept enables the generation of safe predictions of FPF and LPF of composite laminates, providing reliable and fast laminate failure indications that can be particularly useful as a design tool for conceptual and preliminary design of composite structures. The proposed extended omni strain failure envelopes allow not only identification of the controlling plies for FPF and LPF, but also of the controlling failure modes. FPF/LPF surfaces for general 3D stress states can be obtained using only the material properties extracted from the unidirectional (UD) material, and can predict membrane FPF or LPF of any laminate independently of lay-up, while considering the effect of out-of-plane stresses. The predictions of the LPF envelopes and surfaces are compared with experimental data on multidirectional laminates from the first and second World-Wide Failure Exercise (WWFE), showing a satisfactory agreement and validating the conservative character of omni-failure envelopes also in the presence of high levels of triaxiality.
This paper introduces a new loading condition considering the combined thermo-electro-mechanical coupling effect in a series solution-based approach to analyze the free-edge interlaminar stresses in smart composite laminates. The governing equations are developed using the principle of complementary virtual work. The assumed stress fields satisfy the traction-free and free-edge boundary conditions. The accurate stress states of the composite structures are acquired through the procedure of generalized eigenvalue problems. The uniform temperature is employed throughout the laminate, and the electric field loading is applied to the symmetric piezo-bonded actuators to examine the combined effect of thermal and electrical stresses on the overall deformation of smart composite laminates. It was observed that the magnitude of the peeling stresses generated by mechanical loading was reduced by the combined thermal and electric excitation loading (up to 25.3%), which in turn resulted in expanding the service life of the smart composite structures. The proposed approach is implemented on three different layup configurations. The efficiency of the current methodology is confirmed by comparing the results with the 3D finite element (FEM) solution computed by ABAQUS.
The increasingly widespread use of vacuum assisted technologies in the manufacture of polymer-composite structures does not always provide the required product quality and repeatability. Deterioration of quality most often appears itself in the form of incomplete filling of the preform with resin as a result of the inner and outer dry spot formation, as well as due to premature gelation of the resin and blockage of the vacuum port. As experience shows, these undesirable phenomena are significantly dependent on the location of the resin and vacuum ports. This article presents a method for making a decision on the rational design of a process layout. It is based on early forecasting of its objectives in terms of quality and reliability when simulating its finite element model, on the correlation analysis of the preliminary and final quality assessments, as well as on the study of the cross-correlation of a group of early calculated sub-criteria. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the example of vacuum infusion of a 3D thin-walled structure of complex geometry.
3D printing of a composite structure with shape memory materials requires a special approach to the subject, at the stage of the design and printing process. This paper presents the design steps during the development of a 3D-printed composite structure with shape memory material. The connection points between the SMA fibers and the printer filament are developed in the MATLAB environment. Finite element method is used to simulate the shortening of the shape memory material under the influence of temperature and its effect on the printed polymer material is presented. In the MATLAB environment, evolutionary algorithms were used to determine the shape of the SMA fiber alignment. This work demonstrates the use of shape memory effect in 3D printed smart composite structures, where the component takes a predetermined shape. The structure obtained as a result of such printing changes with the heat generated by the current voltage, making it the desired fourth dimension.