food web
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2022 ◽  
Vol 171 ◽  
pp. 104304
Lei Yang ◽  
Fenghua Zhang ◽  
Yanqin Luo ◽  
Pengfei Tang

Geoderma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 410 ◽  
pp. 115672
Feng Sun ◽  
Lingda Zeng ◽  
Minling Cai ◽  
Matthieu Chauvat ◽  
Estelle Forey ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mladen Šolić ◽  
Danijela Šantić ◽  
Stefanija Šestanović ◽  
Grozdan Kušpilić ◽  
Frano Matić ◽  

The mechanisms responsible for the development of various structural and functional features of the microbial food web (MFW) and their dynamics at spatial and temporal scales, which are important for predicting their responses to future environmental changes, are largely unknown. More than 3000 datasets of environmental and microbial variables collected over a decade on a seasonal and large spatial scale in the Adriatic Sea were analyzed. The sets of environmental variables were classified into four clusters (representing different environmental states) using Neural Gas analysis and the differences in MFW structure between the clusters were analyzed. Different variants of MFW evolve in the different clusters in terms of the abundance of MFW components, their ratios, growth and grazing rates, predator preference in prey selection, the strength of predator-prey interaction, and the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up control. However, these clusters are neither spatially nor temporally fixed; rather, the area studied represents a mosaic of different environmental conditions that alternate from one state to another on a time scale. In each of the environmental states, a distinct structure of MFW develops that shows consistent and repeatable changes that strictly follow the switching in environmental conditions from one state to another.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Dan Zhao ◽  
Yao Wang ◽  
Ling Wen ◽  
Hongyun Qu ◽  
Zuobiao Zhang ◽  

It is well known that crop monoculture can induce negative effects on soil ecosystems and crop productivity. However, little is known about how vegetable monoculture affects the soil nematode community structure and its relationship with vegetable yields. In this study, the composition, abundance, metabolic footprint, and ecological indices of soil nematodes are investigated in monocultures of pumpkin and melon. The relationships between nematode community structure and yields of pumpkin and melon were analyzed by linear regression. Both monoculture soils of pumpkin and melon suppressed the relative abundance of bacterivores but increased the relative abundance of plant parasites. Pumpkin monoculture soils decreased soil nematode diversity but increased the maturity index of plant parasites. Monoculture soils of pumpkin and melon decreased the metabolic footprint of lower- and higher-level trophic groups of the soil food web, respectively. Pumpkin and melon monoculture soils increased the food web indices channel index (CI) but decreased the enrichment index (EI) and the structure index (SI). The monoculture soils of pumpkin and melon led to a more fungal-dominated decomposition pathway and degraded soil food web conditions. The abundance of bacterivores and food web indices EI and SI were positively correlated with soil nutrients and pH, while the abundance of plant parasites and CI were negatively correlated with soil nutrients and pH. Paratylenchus was negatively correlated with pumpkin and melon yields and could be the potential plant parasites threatening pumpkin and melon productions. Redundancy analysis showed that monocultures of pumpkin and melon altered the soil nematode community via soil properties; total N, total P, alkeline-N, and pH were the main driving factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jana C. Massing ◽  
Anna Schukat ◽  
Holger Auel ◽  
Dominik Auch ◽  
Leila Kittu ◽  

The northern Humboldt Current upwelling system (HCS) belongs to the most productive marine ecosystems, providing five to eight times higher fisheries landings per unit area than other coastal upwelling systems. To solve this “Peruvian puzzle”, to elucidate the pelagic food-web structure and to better understand trophic interactions in the HCS, a combined stable isotope and fatty acid trophic biomarker approach was adopted for key zooplankton taxa and higher trophic positions with an extensive spatial coverage from 8.5 to 16°S and a vertical range down to 1,000 m depth. A pronounced regional shift by up to ∼5‰ in the δ15N baseline of the food web occurred from North to South. Besides regional shifts, δ15N ratios of particulate organic matter (POM) also tended to increase with depth, with differences of up to 3.8‰ between surface waters and the oxygen minimum zone. In consequence, suspension-feeding zooplankton permanently residing at depth had up to ∼6‰ higher δ15N signals than surface-living species or diel vertical migrants. The comprehensive data set covered over 20 zooplankton taxa and indicated that three crustacean species usually are key in the zooplankton community, i.e., the copepods Calanus chilensis at the surface and Eucalanus inermis in the pronounced OMZ and the krill Euphausia mucronata, resulting in an overall low number of major trophic pathways toward anchovies. In addition, the semi-pelagic squat lobster Pleuroncodes monodon appears to play a key role in the benthic-pelagic coupling, as indicated by highest δ13C’ ratios of −14.7‰. If feeding on benthic resources and by diel vertical migration, they provide a unique pathway for returning carbon and energy from the seafloor to the epipelagic layer, increasing the food supply for pelagic fish. Overall, these mechanisms result in a very efficient food chain, channeling energy toward higher trophic positions and partially explaining the “Peruvian puzzle” of enormous fish production in the HCS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elizabeth A. Suter ◽  
Maria Pachiadaki ◽  
Gordon T. Taylor ◽  
Virginia P. Edgcomb

Oxygen-depleted water columns (ODWCs) host a diverse community of eukaryotic protists that change dramatically in composition over the oxic-anoxic gradient. In the permanently anoxic Cariaco Basin, peaks in eukaryotic diversity occurred in layers where dark microbial activity (chemoautotrophy and heterotrophy) were highest, suggesting a link between prokaryotic activity and trophic associations with protists. Using 18S rRNA gene sequencing, parasites and especially the obligate parasitic clade, Syndiniales, appear to be particularly abundant, suggesting parasitism is an important, but overlooked interaction in ODWC food webs. Syndiniales were also associated with certain prokaryotic groups that are often found in ODWCs, including Marinimicrobia and Marine Group II archaea, evocative of feedbacks between parasitic infection events, release of organic matter, and prokaryotic assimilative activity. In a network analysis that included all three domains of life, bacterial and archaeal taxa were putative bottleneck and hub species, while a large proportion of edges were connected to eukaryotic nodes. Inclusion of parasites resulted in a more complex network with longer path lengths between members. Together, these results suggest that protists, and especially protistan parasites, play an important role in maintaining microbial food web complexity, particularly in ODWCs, where protist diversity and microbial productivity are high, but energy resources are limited relative to euphotic waters.

2022 ◽  
Naiara López‐Rojo ◽  
Luz Boyero ◽  
Javier Pérez ◽  
Ana Basaguren ◽  
Bradley J. Cardinale

2022 ◽  
Dirk Sanders ◽  
David J. Baker ◽  
Dave Cruse ◽  
Fraser Bell ◽  
Frank J.F. van Veen ◽  

Junda Ren ◽  
Adam D. Point ◽  
Sadjad Fakouri Baygi ◽  
Sujan Fernando ◽  
Philip K. Hopke ◽  

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