parasitic infection
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Ruhoollah ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
O. A. Al-Jabr ◽  
T. Khan ◽  
A. Khan ◽  

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.

Nora Geissler ◽  
Johanna Ruff ◽  
Julia Walochnik ◽  
Wilhelm Ludwig ◽  
Herbert Auer ◽  

Abstract Purpose This report describes a rare autochthonous case of human D. repens infection in Austria. Dirofilariosis is a mosquito-borne parasitic infection that predominantly affects dogs. Human D. repens infections have primarily been reported in Mediterranean countries, but are emerging throughout Central and Northern Europe. Methods The worm was removed surgically and identified using PCR and DNA sequencing. The consensus sequences were compared against reference sequences of Dirofilaria repens from GenBank. Results The 56-year-old woman acquired the infection, which presented as a subcutaneous nodule, in Vienna, Austria. This is the second autochthonous case of human D. repens infection in Austria. Conclusion The reasons for the emergence of D. repens and other parasitic infections in Central and Northern Europe are manifold, including climate change and globalization. This case demonstrates that with the growing number of D. repens infections, health care professionals must place further emphasis on emerging infectious diseases to ensure appropriate diagnostics and treatment in the future.

2022 ◽  
Ian Wright ◽  
Vanessa Whitfield ◽  
Runa Hanaghan ◽  
Melissa Upjohn ◽  
Paula Boyden

Abstract Background: Increased dog relocation can cause dissemination of parasite and vector populations and this is being recognised in countries across Northern Europe, including the UK. Data regarding the prevalence of exotic infections entering the UK would be beneficial to vets to help assess pets entering the UK from abroad, and to help calculate risk of establishment of novel pathogens. One such group of dogs were seized as part of an RSPCA-led animal welfare investigation and blood tested for exotic pathogens. Methods: As part of the RSPCA investigation, 151 dogs were removed from the site. Blood tests were performed for Babesia. canis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Leishmania infantum by PCR, Br.canis by antibody serology and D.immitis by blood antigen. In addition to pathogen screening, a serology titre for Rabies was measured for each dog. A clinical examination was performed by a veterinary surgeon and clinical signs recorded. Clinical signs data were analysed by the Fisher-Freeman-Halton Exact TestResults: Overall, 24% of the dogs tested positive for an infection. Two dogs were positive for Br.canis antibodies and had no clinical signs indicative of infection. Leishmania infantum was identified in 10.5% of dogs with all but two cases being diagnosed in dogs whose microchip originated in Romania. Hepatozoon canis was identified in 9.6% of dogs, all of which had a Romanian microchip. Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 4.1% of dogs, B.canis in 2.3% of dogs and E.canis was only present in 1.5% of dogs tested. Only four dogs were found to have co-infections. No significant association was found between the pathogens detected and presenting clinical signs. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a range of exotic pathogens entering the UK including Br.canis and demonstrates the importance of screening imported dogs. The emphasis for early recognition of exotic pathogens in imported dogs has relied on screening based on relevant clinical signs and the country of origin. While these factors are useful, this study demonstrated no significant association between presenting clinical signs and the pathogens carried.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 100-111
Amir n. Saleem

The activity of a single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at dose of 200 mcg/kg of body weight was evaluated against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal parasites in mules. Faecal samples were examined at the time of treatment and weekly thereafter up to 4 weeks. Results indicated that invrmectin was highly effective (100%) against Oxyuries equi, Strongyloides westeri, Tristostronglus axei, Trichhonema spp., and Strongylus spp. as judged one week after ivermectin administration.  Complete elimination of Parascaris equorum eggs occurred two weeks after treatment. In contrast, ivermectin was not effective against the tape worms, Anoplocephala spp.. Infected animals had low levels of haemoglobin and red blood cells counts and an elevated packed cell volume, white blood cells and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.  These values returned to normal values 21 days post treatment. No adverse reaction was recorded in the treated animals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010120
Sahilu Tesfaye ◽  
Biruk zerfu ◽  
Kassu Desta

Background Intestinal parasites and Tuberculosis (TB) co-infection is a major public health problem. The parasitic infection suppresses the cell mediated immunity that protects tuberculosis. Helminthes-induced immune modulation promotes progression to active tuberculosis. However, there is paucity of evidences on the intestinal parasites-tuberculosis co-infection in Ethiopia. This study explores the magnitude and associated factors of intestinal parasitic infection and TB among suspected pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients. Methodology A cross-sectional study design was conducted in Kuyu General Hospital from December 2019—March 2020. The socio-demographic data and associated factors were collected by structured questionnaire and then spot-spot sputum and fresh stool samples were collected following standard guidelines and were processed. Descriptive analysis was conducted and reported in frequency and percentage. Bivariate analysis was computed and a multivariable analysis was conducted to provide an adjusted odds ratio (AOR). P-value <0.05 at 95% confidence interval was considered as statistically significant. Results The burden of intestinal parasites was 20.2% (49/ 242) and 6.1% (20/ 242) of them were helminths infections and 14.1% (29/ 242) were protozoa infections. Of 242 patients, 14.9% (36/242) were sputum smear-positive for acid fast-bacilli. Of 36 smear positive patients, 9(25%) had TB–intestinal parasites co-infection. Dwelling in rural areas and having untrimmed fingernails were statistically significantly associated with intestinal parasites. Having a contact history of Tb patients was significantly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusions The magnitude of intestinal parasites and TB among PTB suspected patients were high. Hookworm infection was the predominant helmenthic infection. It is important to consider screening TB patients for intestinal parasites and treat co-infection properly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Thierry Roland Kang ◽  
Jerome Nyhalah Dinga ◽  
Ayuk Elizabeth Orock ◽  
Elvis Monya ◽  
Moses Njutain Ngemenya

Onchocerciasis is a parasitic infection affecting a relatively small population globally but has very devastating pathological outcomes. Ivermectin and recently moxidectin are the only drugs approved for clinical management of the disease, both of which have several limitations. In particular, they are efficacious against microfilariae (microfilaricidal) with no activity against adult worms (nonmacrofilaricidal). Promising anthelmintic activity has been reported in some lichens. This study investigated three lichens, Usnea articulata, Parmotrema tinctorum, and Heterodermia obscurata, found on Mount Cameroon, for potential macrofilaricidal activity. Organic extracts were screened for anti-Onchocerca activity against Onchocerca ochengi isolated from cattle skin using worm motility and MTT formazan assays. Toxicity of highly active extracts was investigated on monkey kidney epithelial (LLCMK2) cells and in BALB/c mice (2000 mg/kg body weight) including effects on liver enzymes. The methanol extract of P. tinctorum (Pammet) was the most active against adult male worms ( I C 50 = 8.1  μg/mL) with the highest selectivity index ( SI = 21.3 ). U. articulata was the most active against the adult female ( I C 50 = 36.3  μg/mL) but had a low SI value (3.4). No mortality and no adverse effects were recorded in the acute toxicity test. These two most active extracts had no significant effect on liver enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate ( P values < 0.05), but a high AST : ALT ratio (2.59) for Pammet indicates likely reversible adverse hepatic toxicity. The high macrofilaricidal activity and selectivity of P. tinctorum suggest it is a potential source of new macrofilaricides which should be further investigated to identify its bioactive constituents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elizabeth A. Suter ◽  
Maria Pachiadaki ◽  
Gordon T. Taylor ◽  
Virginia P. Edgcomb

Oxygen-depleted water columns (ODWCs) host a diverse community of eukaryotic protists that change dramatically in composition over the oxic-anoxic gradient. In the permanently anoxic Cariaco Basin, peaks in eukaryotic diversity occurred in layers where dark microbial activity (chemoautotrophy and heterotrophy) were highest, suggesting a link between prokaryotic activity and trophic associations with protists. Using 18S rRNA gene sequencing, parasites and especially the obligate parasitic clade, Syndiniales, appear to be particularly abundant, suggesting parasitism is an important, but overlooked interaction in ODWC food webs. Syndiniales were also associated with certain prokaryotic groups that are often found in ODWCs, including Marinimicrobia and Marine Group II archaea, evocative of feedbacks between parasitic infection events, release of organic matter, and prokaryotic assimilative activity. In a network analysis that included all three domains of life, bacterial and archaeal taxa were putative bottleneck and hub species, while a large proportion of edges were connected to eukaryotic nodes. Inclusion of parasites resulted in a more complex network with longer path lengths between members. Together, these results suggest that protists, and especially protistan parasites, play an important role in maintaining microbial food web complexity, particularly in ODWCs, where protist diversity and microbial productivity are high, but energy resources are limited relative to euphotic waters.

2022 ◽  
Rouf Ahmad Bhat ◽  
Hidayatullah Tak ◽  
Bilal A. Bhat ◽  
Riyaz Ahmad ◽  
Jahangir Ahmad Dar

Abstract Parasitic infection represents an emerging threat to wild ungulates and a challenge to their management. Although a lot of work has been carried out on helminth parasitic infestation of domestic ungulates of Kashmir but the data pertaining to this aspect of wild ungulates has being ignored. The study on gastrointestinal helminth parasitic infestation of wild ungulates was carried out during post livestock grazing period (November to May) of 2018/2019 in Hirpora Wildlife sanctuary (HWLS) to fill the gap in the existing literature. During the study fresh faecal samples of musk deer Moschus sp.(n=44) and markhor Capra falconeri (n=41)were collected and examined qualitatively and quantitatively for gastrointestinal helminth parasites. A total of seven helminth parasites were recorded which are arranged in the descending order of their overall prevalence as Haemonchus spp. (44.70%),Nematodirus spp. (40%), Trichuris spp. (37.64%), Strongyloides spp. (34.11%)Trichostrongylus spp. (28.23%),Monieziaspp. (23.52%) and Fasciola spp. (20%). The mean EPG (eggs per gram) of different parasites showed a considerable variation in both the wild ungulates. The highest mean EPGwas that of Haemonchus spp. and the lowest mean EPG was that of Fasciola spp. in both hosts. A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean EPG of different parasites among two wild hosts (t=3.606, p=0.01).

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-18
Olaleye W. Babatunde ◽  
I.J. Awah ◽  
Abosede A. Babatunde ◽  

A survey of intestinal parasites of pregnant and non-pregnant women attending the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria was carried out between November 2010 and April 2011. A total of 300 samples (150 from pregnant women and 150 from non – pregnant women respectively) were randomly collected from these women who attended the hospital. The samples were examined using the direct wet preparation and formol ether concentration technique. A total of 41 (13.67%) women were infected. The infected stool samples contained eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides (48.78%), Hookworm (39.02%), and Cysts of Entamoeba histolytica (12.20%). Although, more pregnant women (16(39.02%)), the difference was not statistically significant. The highest prevalence of 20% was observed in the pregnant women within the age – group of 27-30 while the age group of 19-22 years. The difference between the prevalence of infection in the age group was significant. However personal hygiene improved health education programs and supervised public toilets together with food vendor's education have been recommended as measures to eradicate intestinal parasitic infections among pregnant and non-pregnant women. It has been recommended that stool analysis should be part of the antenatal screening tests particularly in subjects with a high level of parasitemia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Hyo-jeong Kim ◽  
Se-Hoon Kim ◽  
Hoi-seon Jeong ◽  
Bum-Joon Kim

Abstract Background Intramedullary parasitic infection is extremely uncommon, and clinical presentation of Brown-Sequard syndrome is even rarer. Case presentation The authors report a case involving a 57-year-old woman with Brown-Sequard syndrome, in whom magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and epidemiological features were similar to those of acute transverse myelitis. Myelotomy suggested inflammation caused by latent parasite eggs in the spinal cord. Antiparasitic and steroid therapies were administered postoperatively. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first report to describe a surgical experience for Taenia solium eggs in the spinal cord. Conclusion Intramedullary parasitic infection is a diagnostic challenge that requires careful discrimination from other diseases. If parasite infection is suspected in a progressively deteriorating patient, myelotomy should be considered for rapid and accurate treatment.

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