forensic age estimation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 ◽  
pp. 101998
R.V. Meghana ◽  
Prathima Mallempalli ◽  
Subhashini Kondakamalli ◽  
Mamatha Boringi ◽  
Rahul Marshal Vaddeswarapu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Wenxuan Hou ◽  
Longjun Liu ◽  
Jinxia Gao ◽  
Anguo Zhu ◽  
Keyang Pan ◽  

Sebastian Gassenmaier ◽  
Juergen F. Schaefer ◽  
Konstantin Nikolaou ◽  
Michael Esser ◽  
Ilias Tsiflikas

A Correction to this paper has been published: 10.1007/s00330-021-08111-5

2021 ◽  
pp. 002580242110202
Devendra Jadav ◽  
Rutwik Shedge ◽  
Tanuj Kanchan ◽  
Vikas Meshram ◽  
Pawan Kumar Garg ◽  

Forensic age estimation is a crucial aspect of the biological profile of unidentified cadavers. The utility of age-related changes of hyoid bone fusion in forensic age estimation has not been explored much in the past. These age-related changes can be visualised in both the living and the dead using conventional radiography. These changes can assist medico-legal professionals and forensic anthropologists in the identification of unknown deceased, especially when the cadaver is mutilated or charred or when the other well-established indicators of skeletal and dental maturity are absent. The aims of this study were to evaluate age-related changes in the hyoid bone and to ascertain whether these changes may be utilised for age estimation in forensic examinations. The hyoid bone was carefully dissected using a standard procedure from 75 cadavers during post-mortem examination. The hyoid bone was radiographed, and the bone was replaced in the body cavity before the post-mortem examination was completed. Hyoid bone fusion was studied by using a standard grading method. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was calculated between the fusion scores and chronological age to assess their relationship. Box and whisker plots of fusion stage-wise age distribution were constructed to demonstrate the gradual linear relationship between hyoid bone fusion and the chronological age of the study participants. The present study concludes that hyoid bone fusion is an indicator of the chronological age of an individual and can be used in conjunction with other methods of age estimation such as the skeletal and dental age.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 ◽  
pp. 101827
Julieta G. García-Donas ◽  
Andrea Bonicelli ◽  
Ashely Rose Scholl ◽  
Caroline Lill ◽  
Robert R. Paine ◽  

Magdalini Tozakidou ◽  
Rieke L. Meister ◽  
Lennart Well ◽  
Kay U. Petersen ◽  
Sebastian Schindera ◽  

Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the impact of arm position in computed tomography (CT) of the clavicle performed for forensic age estimation on clavicular position, image noise, and radiation dose. Methods and materials Forty-seven CT scans of the medial clavicular epiphysis performed for forensic age estimation were conducted with either hands and arms held upwards (CTHU, 28 persons) or positioned at the body (CTHD, 19 persons). Presets were identical for both positions (70 mAs/140 kVp; Brilliance iCT, Philips). Each CT scan was reconstructed with an iterative algorithm (i-Dose 4) and evaluated at the middle of the sternoclavicular joint. Clavicular angle was measured on a.p. topograms in relation to a horizontal line. Quantitative image noise was measured in air at the level of medial clavicular epiphysis. Effective dose and scan length were recorded. Results Hands-up position compared with hands-down position resulted in a lower lateral body diameter (CTHU 41.1 ± 3.6 cm vs. CTHD 44.6 ± 3.1 cm; P = 0.03), a reduced quantitative image noise (CTHU: 39.5 ± 9.2; CTHD: 46.2 ± 8.3; P = 0.02), and lower CTDIvol (5.1 ± 1.4 mGy vs. 6.7 ± 1.8 mGy; P = 0.001). Scan length was longer in patients examined with hands up (HU: 8.5 ± 3.4 cm; HD: 6.2 ± 2.1 cm; P = 0.006). Mean effective dose for CTHU was 0.79 ± 0.32 mSv compared with 0.95 ± 0.38 mSv in CTHD (P = 0.12). Clavicular angle was 17° ± 6° in patients with hands down and 32° ± 7° in patients with hands up (P < 0.001). Conclusion By elevated arm positioning, the image quality of clavicular CT scans can be improved while maintaining radiation dose compared with hands down. Clavicular position differs according to the hand position. Thus, positioning patients with elevated hands is advisable for forensic clavicular CT examinations, but multiplanar CT reconstructions should be adjusted to clavicular position and scan length should be reduced to a minimum.

2021 ◽  
Vol 61 (2) ◽  
pp. 138-146
Rutwik Shedge ◽  
Tanuj Kanchan ◽  
Varsha Warrier ◽  
Shilpi Gupta Dixit ◽  
Kewal Krishan

Of the many roles that forensic anthropologists and medico-legal professionals need to perform, forensic age estimation is one of the most frequent and important. Scoring medial clavicular epiphyseal (MCE) fusion is a method used to estimate age in young adults. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the reliability and reproducibility of MCE fusion visualised by conventional radiography and scored by Schmeling’s grading system to determine whether an individual has attained the age of 18 years. Four articles were acquired after screening 4589 articles across four databases, and these were subjected to qualitative and quantitative synthesis. The risk of bias was calculated in the qualitative synthesis using the QUADAS-2 tool. Horizontal box plots were constructed to see whether MCE fusion as visualised by conventional radiography can be used to ascertain whether an individual has attained the age of maturity (18 years). It was observed that stages 4 and 5 of the Schmeling’s method of age estimation from MCE fusion are observed only in individuals aged ≥18 years. This indicates that MCE fusion, when visualised using x-rays, which are associated with less ionisation radiation compared to computed tomography, can be used to verify the attainment of the age majority in individuals.

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