accurate estimation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 520 ◽  
pp. 230830
Author(s):  
Sagar Bharathraj ◽  
Shashishekar P. Adiga ◽  
Anshul Kaushik ◽  
K.Subramanya Mayya ◽  
Myeongjae Lee ◽  
...  

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 260
Author(s):  
Mahendiran T. Vellingiri ◽  
Ibrahim M. Mehedi ◽  
Thangam Palaniswamy

In recent years, alternative engine technologies are necessary to resolve the problems related to conventional vehicles. Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are effective solutions to decarbonize the transportation sector. It also becomes important to shift from traditional houses to smart houses and from classical vehicles to EVs or HEVs. It is needed to combine renewable energy sources (RESs) such as solar photovoltaics, wind energy systems, and various forms of bio-energies. Among various HEV technologies, an effective battery management system (BMS) still remains a crucial issue that is majorly used for indicating the battery state of charge (SOC). Since over-charging and over-discharging result in inevitable impairment to the batteries, accurate SOC estimation desires to be presented by the BMS. Although several SOC estimation techniques exist to regulate the SOC of the battery cell, it is needed to improvise the SOC estimation performance on HEVs. In this view, this paper focuses on the design of a novel deep learning (DL) with SOC estimation model for secure renewable energy management (DLSOC-REM) technique for HEVs. The presented model employs a hybrid convolution neural network and long short-term memory (HCNN-LSTM) model for the accurate estimation of SOC. In order to improve the SOC estimation outcomes of the HCNN-LSTM model, the barnacles mating optimizer (BMO) is applied for the hyperpower tuning process. The utilization of the HCNN-LSTM model makes the modeling process easier and offers a precise depiction of the input–output relationship of the battery model. The design of BMO based HCNN-LSTM model for SOC estimation shows the novelty of the work. An extensive experimental analysis highlighted the supremacy of the proposed model over other existing methods in terms of different aspects.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marcus D.R. Klarqvist ◽  
Saaket Agrawal ◽  
Nathaniel Diamant ◽  
Patrick T. Ellinor ◽  
Anthony Philippakis ◽  
...  

Background: Inter-individual variation in fat distribution is increasingly recognized as clinically important but is not routinely assessed in clinical practice because quantification requires medical imaging. Objectives: We hypothesized that a deep learning model trained on an individual's body shape outline - or silhouette - would enable accurate estimation of specific fat depots, including visceral (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous (ASAT), and gluteofemoral (GFAT) adipose tissue volumes, and VAT/ASAT ratio. We additionally set out to study whether silhouette-estimated VAT/ASAT ratio may stratify risk of cardiometabolic diseases independent of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Methods: Two-dimensional coronal and sagittal silhouettes were constructed from whole-body magnetic resonance images in 40,032 participants of the UK Biobank and used to train a convolutional neural network to predict VAT, ASAT, and GFAT volumes, and VAT/ASAT ratio. Logistic and Cox regressions were used to determine the independent association of silhouette-predicted VAT/ASAT ratio with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Results: Mean age of the study participants was 65 years and 51% were female. A deep learning model trained on silhouettes enabled accurate estimation of VAT, ASAT, and GFAT volumes (R2: 0.88, 0.93, and 0.93, respectively), outperforming a comparator model combining anthropometric and bioimpedance measures (ΔR2 = 0.05-0.13). Next, we studied VAT/ASAT ratio, a nearly BMI- and waist circumference-independent marker of unhealthy fat distribution. While the comparator model poorly predicted VAT/ASAT ratio (R2: 0.17-0.26), a silhouette-based model enabled significant improvement (R2: 0.50-0.55). Silhouette-predicted VAT/ASAT ratio was associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Conclusions: Body silhouette images can estimate important measures of fat distribution, laying the scientific foundation for population-based assessment.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 618
Author(s):  
Rakshith Badarinath ◽  
Vittaldas Prabhu

In this paper we addressed key challenges in engineering an instrumentation system for sensing and signal processing for real-time estimation of two main process variables in the Fused-Filament-Fabrication process: (i) temperature of the polymer melt exiting the nozzle using a thermocouple; and (ii) polymer flowrate using extrusion width measurements in real-time, in-situ, using a microscope camera. We used a design of experiments approach to develop response surface models for two materials that enable accurate estimation of the polymer exit temperature as a function of polymer flowrate and liquefier temperature with a fit of 𝑅2=99.96% and 99.39%. The live video stream of the deposition process was used to compute the flowrate based on a road geometry model. Specifically, a robust extrusion width recognizer algorithm was developed to identify edges of the deposited road and for real-time computation of extrusion width, which was found to be robust to filament colors and materials. The extrusion width measurement was found to be within 0.08 mm of caliper measurements with an 𝑅2 value of 99.91% and was found to closely track the requested flowrate from the slicer. This opens new avenues for advancing the engineering science for process monitoring and control of FFF.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Author(s):  
Kohei Ichikawa ◽  
Asaki Kataoka

Abstract Animals make efficient probabilistic inferences based on uncertain and noisy information from the outside environment. It is known that probabilistic population codes, which have been proposed as a neural basis for encoding probability distributions, allow general neural networks (NNs) to perform near-optimal point estimation. However, the mechanism of sampling-based probabilistic inference has not been clarified. In this study, we trained two types of artificial NNs, feedforward NN (FFNN) and recurrent NN (RNN), to perform sampling-based probabilistic inference. Then we analyzed and compared their mechanisms of sampling. We found that sampling in RNN was performed by a mechanism that efficiently uses the properties of dynamical systems, unlike FFNN. In addition, we found that sampling in RNNs acted as an inductive bias, enabling a more accurate estimation than in maximum a posteriori estimation. These results provide important arguments for discussing the relationship between dynamical systems and information processing in NNs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 70-93
Author(s):  
John Patrick Fitzsimmons ◽  
Ruodan Lu ◽  
Ying Hong ◽  
Ioannis Brilakis

The UK commissions about £100 billion in infrastructure construction works every year. More than 50% of them finish later than planned, causing damage to the interests of stakeholders. The estimation of time-risk on construction projects is currently done subjectively, largely by experience despite there are many existing techniques available to analyse risk on the construction schedules. Unlike conventional methods that tend to depend on the accurate estimation of risk boundaries for each task, this research aims to proposes a hybrid method to assist planners in undertaking risk analysis using baseline schedules with improved accuracy. The proposed method is endowed with machine intelligence and is trained using a database of 293,263 tasks from a diverse sample of 302 completed infrastructure construction projects in the UK. It combines a Gaussian Mixture Modelling-based Empirical Bayesian Network and a Support Vector Machine followed by performing a Monte Carlo risk simulation. The former is used to investigate the uncertainty, correlated risk factors, and predict task duration deviations while the latter is used to return a time-risk simulated prediction. This study randomly selected 10 projects as case studies followed by comparing their results of the proposed hybrid method with Monte Carlo Simulation. Results indicated 54.4% more accurate prediction on project delays.


Author(s):  
Chenyu Zhou ◽  
Liangyao Yu ◽  
Yong Li ◽  
Jian Song

Accurate estimation of sideslip angle is essential for vehicle stability control. For commercial vehicles, the estimation of sideslip angle is challenging due to severe load transfer and tire nonlinearity. This paper presents a robust sideslip angle observer of commercial vehicles based on identification of tire cornering stiffness. Since tire cornering stiffness of commercial vehicles is greatly affected by tire force and road adhesion coefficient, it cannot be treated as a constant. To estimate the cornering stiffness in real time, the neural network model constructed by Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation (LMBP) algorithm is employed. LMBP is a fast convergent supervised learning algorithm, which combines the steepest descent method and gauss-newton method, and is widely used in system parameter estimation. LMBP does not rely on the mathematical model of the actual system when building the neural network. Therefore, when the mathematical model is difficult to establish, LMBP can play a very good role. Considering the complexity of tire modeling, this study adopted LMBP algorithm to estimate tire cornering stiffness, which have simplified the tire model and improved the estimation accuracy. Combined with neural network, A time-varying Kalman filter (TVKF) is designed to observe the sideslip angle of commercial vehicles. To validate the feasibility of the proposed estimation algorithm, multiple driving maneuvers under different road surface friction have been carried out. The test results show that the proposed method has better accuracy than the existing algorithm, and it’s robust over a wide range of driving conditions.


2022 ◽  
pp. 0148558X2110632
Author(s):  
Samir M. El-Gazzar ◽  
Rudolph A. Jacob ◽  
Scott P. McGregor

This paper investigates the association between life insurers’ voluntary disclosure of embedded value (EV), an unregulated market-driven fair value measure, and analyst forecast accuracy and dispersion. EV is an estimate of the present value of future net cash flows from in-force life insurance business. Advocates of this disclosure believe that EV is a better measure of economic performance than traditional GAAP measures. Others argue that corporate management has discretion in estimating and reporting EV. Further, analysts may have access to information that allows the development of possibly more accurate estimation metrics in the absence of EV disclosure. It is then an empirical issue to determine whether EV disclosure has any incremental effect on analysts’ forecast properties. Using a multi-country setting, we find that EV disclosure is positively associated with analysts’ earnings forecast accuracy and negatively related to forecast dispersion. This result is consistent with the alternative hypothesis that disclosure of EV provides a richer information set that enriches analysts’ forecasts beyond their own in-house developed surrogates. As guidance for insurance accounting and disclosure evolves, our findings support the value of continuing to provide EV information to the public.


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