fused filament fabrication
Recently Published Documents





Alexandre A. Cavalcante

Abstract: Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), better known as FDM© (Fused Deposition Modeling) is an additive manufacturing process (AM) by which a physical object can be created from a 3D model generated in the computer, through layer-by-layer deposition of semi-melted plastic filaments. However, parts produced by the FDM process have different characteristics compared to parts produced by traditional methods such as plastic injection, especially with regard to mechanical properties related to stresses (tensile, compression, torsion and shear), due to the anisotropic nature of the process deposition. Many works have been carried out in order to determine the influence between the FDM process parameters and the mechanical characteristics of parts produced by this technology. Traditionally, the studied parameters comprise those that are adjusted in slicing software, which does not satisfactorily reflect the bond between the layers. This work uses the area of contact between the layers as the determining factor of the transverse tensile strength to bedding and suggests a methodology for the determination of this parameter. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Taguchi analysis method, we identified the contact area between the layers as the most relevant parameter for tensile strength in the transverse direction of the printed layers with a relevance of more than 95% over the others investigated parameters. From the survey of relevant properties, new tests were carried out to determine a mathematical model to predict the minimum slicing parameters that should be used to obtain the required strength. Keywords: Fused Deposition Modeling, Mechanical Strength, AM Anisotropic Property, Layer Bond Properties, PLA.

JOM ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Brecht Van Hooreweder ◽  
Eleonora Ferraris

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 618
Rakshith Badarinath ◽  
Vittaldas Prabhu

In this paper we addressed key challenges in engineering an instrumentation system for sensing and signal processing for real-time estimation of two main process variables in the Fused-Filament-Fabrication process: (i) temperature of the polymer melt exiting the nozzle using a thermocouple; and (ii) polymer flowrate using extrusion width measurements in real-time, in-situ, using a microscope camera. We used a design of experiments approach to develop response surface models for two materials that enable accurate estimation of the polymer exit temperature as a function of polymer flowrate and liquefier temperature with a fit of 𝑅2=99.96% and 99.39%. The live video stream of the deposition process was used to compute the flowrate based on a road geometry model. Specifically, a robust extrusion width recognizer algorithm was developed to identify edges of the deposited road and for real-time computation of extrusion width, which was found to be robust to filament colors and materials. The extrusion width measurement was found to be within 0.08 mm of caliper measurements with an 𝑅2 value of 99.91% and was found to closely track the requested flowrate from the slicer. This opens new avenues for advancing the engineering science for process monitoring and control of FFF.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Chanun Suwanpreecha ◽  
Anchalee Manonukul

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to systematically investigate the influence of build orientation on the anisotropic as-printed and as-sintered bending properties of 17-4PH stainless steel fabricated by metal fused filament fabrication (MFFF). Design/methodology/approach The bending properties of 17-4PH alloy fabricated by low-cost additive manufacturing (MFFF) using three build orientations (the Flat, On-edge and Upright orientations) are examined at both as-printed and as-sintered states. Findings Unlike tensile testing where the Flat and On-edge orientations provide similar as-sintered tensile properties, the On-edge orientation produces a significantly higher bending strain with a lower bending strength than the Flat orientation. This arises from the printed layer sliding due to the Poisson's effect, which is only observed in the On-edge orientation together with the alternated layers of highly deformed and shifted voids. The bending properties show that the Upright orientation exhibits the lowest bending properties and limited plasticity due to the layer delamination. Originality/value This study is the first work to study the effect of build orientation on the flexural properties for MFFF. This work gives insight information into anisotropy in flexural mode for MFFF part design.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Chitralekha Nahar ◽  
Pavan Kumar Gurrala

Purpose The thermal behavior at the interfaces (of the deposited strands) during fused filament fabrication (FFF) technique strongly influences bond formation and it is a time- and temperature-dependent process. The processing parameters affect the thermal behavior at the interfaces and the purpose of the paper is to simulate using temperature-dependent (nonlinear) thermal properties rather than constant properties. Design/methodology/approach Nonlinear temperature-dependent thermal properties are used to simulate the FFF process in a simulation software. The finite-element model is first established by comparing the simulation results with that of analytical and experimental results of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polylactic acid. Strand temperature and time duration to reach critical sintering temperature for the bond formation are estimated for one of the deposition sequences. Findings Temperatures are estimated at an interface and are then compared with the experimental results, which shows a close match. The results of the average time duration (time to reach the critical sintering temperature) of strands with the defined deposition sequences show that the first interface has the highest average time duration. Varying processing parameters show that higher temperatures of the extruder and envelope along with higher extruder diameter and lower convective heat transfer coefficient will have more time available for bonding between the strands. Originality/value A novel numerical model is developed using temperature-dependent (nonlinear) thermal properties to simulate FFF processes. The model estimates the temperature evolution at the strand interfaces. It helps to evaluate the time duration to reach critical sintering temperature (temperature above which the bond formation occurs) as it cools from extrusion temperature.

2022 ◽  
Michael Sabatini Mattei ◽  
Boyuan Liu ◽  
Gerardo A. Mazzei Capote ◽  
Zijie Liu ◽  
Brandon G. Hacha ◽  

Photonic topological insulators have emerged as an exciting new platform for backscatter-free waveguiding even in the presence of defects, with applications in robust long-range energy and quantum information transfer, spectroscopy and sensing, chiral quantum optics, and optoelectronics. We demonstrate a design for spin-Hall photonic topological insulators with remarkably low refractive index contrast, enabling the synthesis of photonic topological waveguides from polymeric materials for the first time. Our design is compatible with additive manufacturing methods, including fused filament fabrication for microwave frequencies, and constitutes the first demonstration of a 3D printed all-dielectric photonic topological insulator. We combine rapid device fabrication through 3D printing with high-speed FDTD simulation to quantify topological protection of transmission through “omega” shaped bent topological waveguides and find that one corner in the waveguide is 3-5 times more robust to disorder than the other. This dichotomy, a new empirical design rule for ℤ2 topological insulator devices, is shown to originate in the fundamental system symmetries and is illustrated via the distributions of Poynting vectors that describe energy flow through the waveguide. Taken together, our demonstration of 3D printed polymeric spin-Hall photonic topological insulators paired with quantification of robustness to disorder at bent topological interfaces provides a rapid, flexible scheme for engineering high-performance topological photonic devices across multiple frequency regimes from microwave to THz, to visible.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document