Fair Value
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Clarence Goh ◽  
Chu Yeong Lim ◽  
Jeffrey Ng ◽  
Gary Pan ◽  
Kevin Ow Yong

We survey stakeholders in the financial reporting process to examine trust in fair value accounting. Though respondents demonstrate high confidence in financial statements, they believe that fair value accounting decreases trust in financial reporting and that preparing fair value numbers is costly but beneficial. They also strongly believe in the Conceptual Framework underlying standard setting. Using multivariate regression analyses, we find that perceiving fair value accounting as beneficial is positively associated with trust in it, consistent with the theory of reasoned action that people engage in behavior (e.g., trust) based on expected positive outcomes of that behavior. We find that this positive association increases with stronger beliefs in the Conceptual Framework. Our paper contributes to the fair value literature by providing general insights on trust in fair value accounting and a specific and novel assessment of how the perceived benefits of fair value accounting increase stakeholders’ trust in it.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (205) ◽  
pp. 1-17

The valuation process of companies is essential for investors to estimate the fair value of a company. Once it has been established, it is possible to compare with the market value and thus judge whether an asset is cheap, fair or expensive. There are several methodologies for calculating the valuation of a company, among which the following stand out: method of market multiples; discounted cash flow method; method based on the book value. In this sense, the present work aims to evaluate the fair price of the shares of Itaú Unibanco bank (ITUB4) through the discounted cash flow method. For this, data about the company were used from the balance sheet and the statement of income for the year, made available on the internet by the bank. After these data analyzes and the establishment of some assumptions, the cash flow for the next 10 years was projected. From this, the flows were brought to present value, to calculate the fair price of the company's shares, using an appropriate discount rate. As a final result, the model indicates that the shares are undervalued by the market, that is, they are cheap and with a growth potential of 32%.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (9) ◽  
pp. 986-1000
Viktor G. GET’MAN ◽  
Vladislav S. KARTASHOV

Subject. This article analyzes the various types of value used in IFRS to assess assets and liabilities. Objectives. The article aims to conduct a comparative analysis of the types of value used in IFRS when assessing assets and liabilities, and identify the features of the use of fair value as a type of value, considering the use of certain levels of fair value and restrictions on their use. Methods. For the study, we used the systems analysis, comparative study method, information structuring, data grouping, deduction, and other methods of scientific research. Results. The article summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each of the valuation methods described in the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting – IFRS. It systematizes the standards that use certain types of value, and analyzes the features of the use of fair value. The article also identifies factors that affect the ability to measure a higher level of fair value. Conclusions. Fair value is one of the most used valuation methods in international accounting practices. However, the use of fair value in estimating the value of reporting items is limited due to the complexity and high cost of its qualitative valuation. This makes companies use alternative valuation methods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 50-58
Hendra Dukalang

This study aims to determine the intrinsic value or fair value of shares and the position of share value in Agriculture sub-sector companies, whether Overvalued (expensive), undervalued (cheap), or fair-valued (fair) using the relative valuation method approach for the 2016 – 2019 observation period in Agriculture sub-sector companies. The population in this study were 70 samples of companies from various sub-sectors. Determination of the sample is with the technique of purose sampling. So that the sample obtained is three companies in the field of agriculture with the provision that they have the most liquid index. Calculation data is processed using Ms. Excel 2010. The calculation results using the Relative Valuation Method are that AALI and LSIP companies are recommended for sale because they are in an Overvalued position, while SIMP company shares are recommended to be purchased because they are in an undervalued position

Emilia Sergeevna Druzhilovskaya

The Federal Accounting Standard (FAS) 5/2019 “Inventories” provides for a fairly broad application of fair value measurement of the inventories of non-budgetary sphere organizations (including healthcare organizations). An even more active use of fair value is suggested by FAS 6/2020 for the measurement of property, plant and equipment of the aforementioned organizations. The specified value is entered into the domestic accounting of the listed assets for the first time and is unusual for many Russian accountants. All this indicates the relevance of a detailed study of issues related to the fair value measurement of inventories and property, plant and equipment of the aforementioned organizations. In this article, the scope and features of the formation of this measurement are investigated. Other issues related to this measurement will be analyzed by us in the next article. The research methods were analysis and synthesis, grouping method, comparison, analogy method, logical approach, systemic approach. As a result of the research carried out, the article defines the scope of the fair value measurement of inventories and property, plant and equipment in the Russian accounting of organizations that are not budgetary sphere organizations, analyzes the features of the formation of such a measurement of these assets, identifies the most important problematic issues in this area and identifies ways to solve them.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Karthik Ramanna

Abstract In 2010, the U.S. accounting rulemaker (FASB) updated its longstanding constitution to eliminate “reliability” as a fundamental accounting property. FASB argued that “reliability” was misunderstood in practice and that this amendment clarified its original intent. Drawing on primary archival resources and field interviews with regulators, I provide evidence that the change also sought to legitimize the rise of fair-value accounting. By eliminating the need for accounting to be “reliable,” the change attempted to neutralize concerns about the subjectivity in fair-value estimates. Such subjectivity can facilitate accounting manipulation, and some fair-value rules can be attributed to lobbying by managers who stand to benefit. The change illustrates “conceptual veiling,” wherein regulators, seeking to diffuse criticism, including suspicions of capture, manufacture costly conceptual narratives for justifying their actions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Maria Luiza. M. Campos ◽  
Eugênio Silva ◽  
Renato Cerceau ◽  
Sérgio Manuel Serra da Cruz ◽  
Fabricio A. B. Silva ◽  

Iman Shihan Abbas Al-Mashhadani, Ali Abdulhassan Abbas Al-Fa Iman Shihan Abbas Al-Mashhadani, Ali Abdulhassan Abbas Al-Fa

The study is intended to investigate the impact of applying fair value, as represented in two dimensions: the relevance of fair value accounting, and the obstacles confronting fair value accounting on investment decision making, for which the hypotheses of the study has been confirmed. The problem focusses on the impact of ambiguous standards, accounting disclosures, and the lack of credibility and reliability of investment decision making. The study is also intended to determine the positive effects of applying the fair value in terms of achieving quality in profits and enabling investment decision making to take correct decisions. The study attempts to investigate the role of fair value in determining the actual value of the entity depending on the market value of bank assets so as to improve future expectations and compare with other banks that depend on fair value. A questionnaire has been distributed to a sample of 70 individuals working at commercial banks in Karbala, Iraq. of accounts and auditors and investment decision-makers. we used multiple regression and the backward method in our statistical analysis. The study asserts the necessity to have legislation related to fair value and that consolidates the concepts of fair value and the ways in which this can be measured in banks through additional training courses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. 129
Francesco Bellandi

Purpose: This article tests own credit risk accounting under Modigliani-Miller theory to determine whether there is a fundamental fallacy in the unsolved issue of counter-intuitive results. Design/methodology/approach: A system of equations derived from the MM theorem to own risk. Findings: Solutions to the wealth transfer hypothesis. Parameters of issuer and holder that nullify own credit risk gain/loss and impairment loss/gain. A theoretical framework is developed to reconcile accounting to Modigliani-Miller theory. If the MM theory is true, as generally it is held to be, the system of equations shows that the recognition of own credit gain or loss would arise from different accounting measurement bases of liability own risk versus assets impairment, and by not reflecting the rebound effect in liability fair value measurement, in both cases not a faithfully representation of the substance of the facts and circumstances. The former would require a re-alignment between impairment and financial liability measurement rules. The latter would require a rethinking of fulfillment vs. fair value measurement to these liabilities. In addition, given the tenet that the accounting does not recognize shareholder wealth transfer, the current financial performance dilemma can be solved by recognizing in equity the concept of capital maintenance adjustment. Originality: Rare, if not unique, innovative direct application of MM paradigm to own risk. Implications: Significant contribution to the debate on performance and OCI, counter-intuitive results and accounting mismatch, fulfilment value versus fair value, incomplete recognition of contemporaneous asset value, and the definition of income in the Conceptual Framework.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
K.L. Wasantha Perera ◽  
Roshan Ajward ◽  
Sisira Dharmasri Jayasekara

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible money laundering threats in fair value accounting practices giving particular attention to the list of predicate offences under recommendations of Financial Action Task Force (FATF). Design/methodology/approach This paper discusses case studies related to global accounting scandals and link outcomes of those scandals with the list of predicate offences given in FATF recommendations to build propositions. Findings The analysis reveals that legal proceedings on major accounting scandals show that legal proceedings have been restricted owing to a lack of evidence because of the technicality of frauds. Often the authorities have failed to prove cases under the list of current predicate offences which can be linked to accounting malpractices, i.e. fraud. Therefore, policymakers are required to revisit the list of predicate offences and the feasibility of considering accounting malpractices as a predicate offence to strengthen the corporate governance practices in regulated institutions. The adoption of fair value accounting practices provides opportunities to managers to adopt earnings management practices under a fair value accounting regime to maintain stable performance. The fair value practice recognizes unrealized gains which are not based on transactions giving bank managers an opportunity to repeat the outcomes of the discussed accounting scandals. Therefore, it is essential to criminalize accounting malpractices to strengthen the corporate governance practices in the banking industry and prevent possible accounting scandals. Research limitations/implications This study was designed to discuss the implications of fair value accounting practices on possible opportunities of money laundering. This paper provides only a viewpoint based on the analysis. Therefore, an empirical analysis is required to establish the authors’ views in a fair value accounting regime. Originality/value This paper is an original work done by the authors which discuss the implications of fair value accounting practices on possible money laundering. The views are original ideas of the authors in this context.

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