Clinical Significance
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Laura Alagna ◽  
Jennifer M. T. A. Meessen ◽  
Giacomo Bellani ◽  
Daniela Albiero ◽  
Pietro Caironi ◽  

Abstract Background The role of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) during sepsis is controversial, as different trials on IVIG have observed inconsistent survival benefits. We aimed to elucidate the possible association and clinical significance between circulating levels of immunoglobulins. Methods In a subset of 956 patients with severe sepsis and septic shock of the multicentre, open-label RCT ALBIOS, venous blood samples were serially collected 1, 2, and 7 days after enrolment (or at ICU discharge, whichever came first). IgA, IgG and IgM concentrations were assayed in all patients on day 1 and in a subgroup of 150 patients on days 2 and 7. Ig concentrations were measured employing a turbidimetric assay, OSR61171 system. Results IgA on day 1 had a significant predictive value for both 28-day and 90-day mortality (28-day mortality, HR: 1.50 (95% CI 1.18–1.92); 90-day mortality, HR: 1.54 (95% CI 1.25–1.91)). IgG, but not IgM, on day 1 showed similar results for 28-day (HR 1.83 (95% CI 1.33–2.51) and 90-day mortality HR: 1.66 (95% CI 1.23–2.25)). In addition, lower levels of IgG but not of IgA and IgM, at day 1 were associated with significantly higher risk of secondary infections (533 [406–772] vs 600 [452–842] mg/dL, median [Q1–Q3], p = 0.007). Conclusions In the largest cohort study of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock, we found that high levels of IgA and IgG on the first day of diagnosis were associated with a decreased 90-day survival. No association was found between IgM levels and survival. As such, the assessment of endogenous immunoglobulins could be a useful tool to identify septic patients at high risk of mortality. Trial registration #NCT00707122,, registered 30 June 2008

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Rong Wei ◽  
Guoye Qi ◽  
Zixin Zeng ◽  
Ningning Shen ◽  
Ziyue Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer has been a threateningly lethal malignant tumor worldwide. Despite the promising survival improvement in other cancer types attributing to the fast development of molecular precise medicine, the current treatment situation of pancreatic cancer is still woefully challenging since its limited response to neither traditional radiotherapy and chemotherapy nor emerging immunotherapy. The study is to explore potential responsible genes during the development of pancreatic cancer, thus identifying promising gene indicators and probable drug targets. Methods Different bioinformatic analysis were used to interpret the genetic events in pancreatic cancer development. Firstly, based on multiple cDNA microarray profiles from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, the genes with differently mRNA expression in cancer comparing to normal pancreatic tissues were identified, followed by being grouped based on the difference level. Then, GO and KEGG were performed to separately interpret the multiple groups of genes, and further Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox Regression analysis assisted us to scale down the candidate genes and select the potential key genes. Further, the basic physicochemical properties, the association with immune cells infiltration, mutation or other types variations besides expression gap in pancreatic cancer comparing to normal tissues of the selected key genes were analyzed. Moreover, the aberrant changed expression of key genes was validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) experiment using local hospital tissue microarray samples and the clinical significance was explored based on TCGA clinical data. Results Firstly, a total of 22,491 genes were identified to express differently in cancer comparing to normal pancreatic tissues based on 5 cDNA expression profiles, and the difference of 487/22491 genes was over eightfold, and 55/487 genes were shared in multi profiles. Moreover, after genes interpretation which showed the > eightfold genes were mainly related to extracellular matrix structural constituent regulation, Kaplan–Meier survival and Cox-regression analysis were performed continually, and the result indicated that of the 55 extracellular locating genes, GPRC5A and IMUP were the only two independent prognostic indicators of pancreatic cancer. Further, detailed information of IMUP and GPRC5A were analyzed including their physicochemical properties, their expression and variation ratio and their association with immune cells infiltration in cancer, as well as the probable signaling pathways of genes regulation on pancreatic cancer development. Lastly, local IHC experiment performed on PAAD tissue array which was produced with 62 local hospital patients samples confirmed that GPRC5A and IMUP were abnormally up-regulated in pancreatic cancer, which directly associated with worse patients both overall (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS). Conclusions Using multiple bioinformatic analysis as well as local hospital samples validation, we revealed that GPRC5A and IMUP expression were abnormally up-regulated in pancreatic cancer which associated statistical significantly with patients survival, and the genes’ biological features and clinical significance were also explored. However, more detailed experiments and clinical trials are obligatory to support their further potential drug-target role in clinical medical treatment.

Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1752
Christina C. Westhoff ◽  
Christian-Dominik Peterlein ◽  
Hanna Daniel ◽  
Juergen R. Paletta ◽  
Roland Moll ◽  

The most common spinal disorder in elderly is lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), resulting partly from ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy. Its pathophysiology is not completely understood. The present study wants to elucidate the role of estrogen receptor α (ER α) in fibroblasts of hypertrophied LF. LF samples of 38 patients with LSS were obtained during spinal decompression. Twelve LF samples from patients with disk herniation served as controls. Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) and Elastica stains and immunohistochemistry for ER α were performed. The proportions of fibrosis, loss and/or degeneration of elastic fibers and proliferation of collagen fibers were assessed according to the scores of Sairyo and Okuda. Group differences in the ER α and Sairyo and Okuda scores between patients and controls, male and female sex and absence and presence of additional orthopedic diagnoses were assessed with the Mann–Whitney U test. There was a tendency towards higher expression of ER α in LF fibroblasts in the hypertrophy group (p = 0.065). The Sairyo and Okuda scores were more severe for the hypertrophy group but, in general, not statistically relevant. There was no statistically relevant correlation between the expression of ER α and sex (p = 0.326). ER α expression was higher in patients with osteochondrosis but not statistically significant (p = 0.113). In patients with scoliosis, ER α expression was significantly lower (p = 0.044). LF hypertrophy may be accompanied by a higher expression of ER α in fibroblasts. No difference in ER α expression was observed regarding sex. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological and clinical significance of these findings.

Luca Vezzoni ◽  
Ida Forzisi ◽  
Antonio Ferretti ◽  
Aldo Vezzoni

Abstract Objectives The aim of this study was to describe hemiepiphysiodesis for the treatment of distal femoral valgus in immature dogs and to evaluate its effect on the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA). Methods Skeletally immature dogs with distal femoral valgus deformities that had undergone hemiepiphysiodesis between November 2012 and March 2020 at two private veterinary practices were included. Criteria for inclusion in the study were a preoperative aLDFA below the previously published reference range (94 ± 3.3 degrees) and radiographs of the femur taken preoperatively and at growth plate closure. Results A total of 11 dogs fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and a total of 17 limbs were treated. The mean aLDFA was 82.1 ± 3.2 degrees (range: 76–87 degrees) preoperatively and 93.1 ± 5 degrees (range: 76–99 degrees) at the final re-evaluation. The mean difference between the preoperative and final aLDFA was +11 degrees, which was significant. Undercorrection occurred in 2/17 cases, whereas overcorrection was not recorded. The implants were removed in 12/17 cases, and rebound growth occurred in 3 of these. Clinical Significance Hemiepiphysiodesis for the treatment of distal femoral valgus is a technique that allows for increase in aLDFA and should be considered as an early treatment in affected immature dogs. Monitoring for possible overcorrection using serial radiography is important. Implant removal when the desired aLDFA has been achieved is recommended because the incidence of rebound growth is uncommon in dogs.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0256615
Daryoush Saeed-Vafa ◽  
Douglas C. Marchion ◽  
Susan M. McCarthy ◽  
Ardeshir Hakam ◽  
Alexis Lopez ◽  

Loss of stromal caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a biomarker of a cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) phenotype and is related to progression, metastasis, and poor outcomes in several cancers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of Cav-1 expression in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa). Epithelial and stromal Cav-1 expression were quantified in serous OvCa and benign ovarian tissue in two, independent cohorts–one quantified expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the other using multiplex immunofluorescence (IF) with digital image analysis designed to target CAF-specific expression. Cav-1 expression was significantly downregulated in OvCa stroma compared to non-neoplastic stroma using both the IHC (p = 0.002) and IF (p = 1.8x10-13) assays. OvCa stroma showed Cav-1 downregulation compared to tumor epithelium with IHC (p = 1.2x10-24). Conversely, Cav-1 expression was higher in OvCa stroma compared to tumor epithelium with IF (p = 0.002). There was moderate correlation between IHC and IF methods for stromal Cav-1 expression (r2 = 0.69, p = 0.006) whereas there was no correlation for epithelial expression (r2 = 0.006, p = 0.98). Irrespective of the staining assay, neither response to therapy or overall survival correlated with the expression level of Cav-1 in the stroma or tumor epithelium. Our findings demonstrate a loss of stromal Cav-1 expression in ovarian serous carcinomas. Studies are needed to replicate these findings and explore therapeutic implications, particularly for immunotherapy response.

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