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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 523-532
Author(s):  
Xin Yan ◽  
Chunfeng Liang ◽  
Xinghuan Liang ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Zhenxing Huang ◽  
...  

<sec> <title>Objective:</title> This study aimed to identify the potential key genes associated with the progression and prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). </sec> <sec> <title>Methods:</title> Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ACC cells and normal adrenocortical cells were assessed by microarray from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The biological functions of the classified DEGs were examined by Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses and a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network was mapped using Cytoscape software. MCODE software was also used for the module analysis and then 4 algorithms of cytohubba software were used to screen hub genes. The overall survival (OS) examination of the hub genes was then performed by the ualcan online tool. </sec> <sec> <title>Results:</title> Two GSEs (GSE12368, GSE33371) were downloaded from GEO including 18 and 43 cases, respectively. One hundred and sixty-nine DEGs were identified, including 57 upregulated genes and 112 downregulated genes. The Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the upregulated genes were significantly enriched in the mitotic cytokines is, nucleus and ATP binding, while the downregulated genes were involved in the positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction, extracellular space, and heparin-binding (P < 0.05). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) pathway examination showed significant pathways including the cell cycle and the complement and coagulation cascades. The protein– protein interaction (PPI) network consisted of 162 nodes and 847 edges, including mitotic nuclear division, cytoplasmic, protein kinase binding, and cell cycle. All 4 identified hub genes (FOXM1, UBE2C, KIF11, and NDC80) were associated with the prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) by survival analysis. </sec> <sec> <title>Conclusions:</title> The present study offered insights into the molecular mechanism of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) that may be beneficial in further analyses. </sec>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bohan Li ◽  
Hua Duan ◽  
Sha Wang ◽  
Jiajing Wu ◽  
Yazhu Li

Abstract Objectives: This study was anchored on the state of local immune-infiltration in the endometrium, which acts as critical factors affecting embryonic implantation, and aimed at establishing novel approaches to assess endometrial receptivity for patients with IVF failure.Methods: Immune-infiltration levels in the GSE58144 dataset (n=115) from GEO were analyzed by digital deconvolution and validated by immunofluorescence (n=30), illustrating that dysregulation of the ratio of Mf1 to Mf2 is an important factor contributing to implantation failure. Then, modules most associated with M1/M2 macrophages (Mfs) and their hub genes were then selected by weighted gene co-expression network and univariate analyses, then validated by GSE5099 macrophage dataset, qPCR analysis (n=16), and western blot. It revealed that closely related gene modules dominated three biological processes in macrophages: antigen presentation, interleukin−1−mediated signalling pathway, and phagosome acidification, respectively. Their hub genes were significantly altered in patients and related with ribosomal, lysosome, and proteasomal pathways. Finally, the artificial neural network (ANN) and nomogram models were established from hub genes, of which efficacy was compared and validated in the GSE165004 dataset (n=72). Models established by the selected hub genes exhibited excellent predictive values in both datasets, and ANN performed best with an accuracy of 98.3% and an AUC of 0.975 (95% CI 0.945-1). Conclusions: Macrophages, proven to be essential for endometrial receptivity, were regulated by gene modules dominating antigen presentation, interleukin−1−mediated signalling pathway, and phagosome acidification. Selected hub genes can effectively assess endometrial dysfunction receptivity for IVF outcomes by the ANN approach.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-23
Author(s):  
Qiaoqiao Li ◽  
Xueping Gao ◽  
Xueshan Luo ◽  
Qingrui Wu ◽  
Jintao He ◽  
...  

Cardioembolic stroke (CS) is the most common type of ischemic stroke in the clinic, leading to high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many studies have been conducted, the molecular mechanism underlying CS has not been fully grasped. This study was aimed at exploring the molecular mechanism of CS using comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and providing new insights into the pathophysiology of CS. We downloaded the public datasets GSE58294 and GSE16561. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened via the limma package using R software. CIBERSORT was used to estimate the proportions of 22 immune cells based on the gene expression profiling of CS patients. Using weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to cluster the genes into different modules and detect relationships between modules and immune cell types, hub genes were identified based on the intersection of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and WGCNA, and their clinical significance was then verified using another independent dataset GSE16561. Totally, 319 genes were identified as DEGs and 5413 genes were clustered into nine modules using WGCNA. The blue module, with the highest correlation coefficient, was identified as the key module associated with stroke, neutrophils, and B cells naïve. Based on the PPI analysis and WGCNA, five genes (MCEMP1, CLEC4D, GPR97, TSPAN14, and FPR2) were identified as hub genes. Correlation analysis indicated that hub genes had general association with infiltration-related immune cells. ROC analysis also showed they had potential clinical significance. The results were verified using another dataset, which were consistent with our analysis. Five crucial genes determined using integrative bioinformatics analysis might play significant roles in the pathophysiological mechanism in CS and be potential targets for pharmaceutic therapies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Xiujin Chen ◽  
Nan Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Zheng ◽  
Zhichao Tong ◽  
Tuanmin Yang ◽  
...  

Purpose. Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most primary bone malignant tumor in adolescents. Although the treatment of OS has made great progress, patients’ prognosis remains poor due to tumor invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods. We downloaded the expression profile GSE12865 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We screened differential expressed genes (DEGs) by making use of the R limma software package. Based on Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we performed the function and pathway enrichment analyses. Then, we constructed a Protein-Protein Interaction network and screened hub genes through the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. Result. By analyzing the gene expression profile GSE12865, we obtained 703 OS-related DEGs, which contained 166 genes upregulated and 537 genes downregulated. The DEGs were primarily abundant in ribosome, cell adhesion molecules, ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase activity, and p53 signaling pathway. The hub genes of OS were KDR, CDH5, CD34, CDC42, RBX1, POLR2C, PPP2CA, and RPS2 through PPI network analysis. Finally, GSEA analysis showed that cell adhesion molecules, chemokine signal pathway, transendothelial migration, and focal adhesion were associated with OS. Conclusion. In this study, through analyzing microarray technology and bioinformatics analysis, the hub genes and pathways about OS are identified, and the new molecular mechanism of OS is clarified.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Taeho Kwon ◽  
Ying-Hao Han ◽  
Xin-Mei He ◽  
Ying-Ying Mao ◽  
Xuan-Chen Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract The incidence of liver diseases has been increasing steadily. However, it has some shortcomings, such as high cost and organ donor scarcity. The application of stem cell research has brought new ideas for the treatment of liver diseases. Therefore, it is particularly important to clarify the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of differentiation of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) into liver cells. Herein, we screened differentially expressed genes between hepatocytes and untreated BMSCs to identify the genes responsible for the differentiation of BMSCs into hepatocytes. GSE30419 gene microarray data of BMSCs and GSE72088 gene microarray data of primary hepatocytes were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Transcriptome Analysis Console software showed that 1896 genes were upregulated and 2506 were downregulated in hepatocytes as compared with BMSCs. Hub genes were analyzed using the STRING, revealing that two hub genes, Cat and Cyp2e1, play a pivotal role in oxidation-reduction process. The results indicate that the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction chain may play an important role in the differentiation of BMSCs into hepatocytes, which provides a new therapeutic target for liver disease treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qingxia Yang ◽  
Yaguo Gong

Thyroid nodules are present in upto 50% of the population worldwide, and thyroid malignancy occurs in only 5–15% of nodules. Until now, fine-needle biopsy with cytologic evaluation remains the diagnostic choice to determine the risk of malignancy, yet it fails to discriminate as benign or malignant in one-third of cases. In order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and reliability, molecular testing based on transcriptomic data has developed rapidly. However, gene signatures of thyroid nodules identified in a plenty of transcriptomic studies are highly inconsistent and extremely difficult to be applied in clinical application. Therefore, it is highly necessary to identify consistent signatures to discriminate benign or malignant thyroid nodules. In this study, five independent transcriptomic studies were combined to discover the gene signature between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. This combined dataset comprises 150 malignant and 93 benign thyroid samples. Then, there were 279 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) discovered by the feature selection method (Student’s t test and fold change). And the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed to identify the modules of highly co-expressed genes, and 454 genes in the gray module were discovered as the hub genes. The intersection between DEGs by the feature selection method and hub genes in the WGCNA model was identified as the key genes for thyroid nodules. Finally, four key genes (ST3GAL5, NRCAM, MT1F, and PROS1) participated in the pathogenesis of malignant thyroid nodules were validated using an independent dataset. Moreover, a high-performance classification model for discriminating thyroid nodules was constructed using these key genes. All in all, this study might provide a new insight into the key differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhengqing Wan ◽  
Haofeng Xiong ◽  
Xian Tan ◽  
Tong Su ◽  
Kun Xia ◽  
...  

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Due to the lack of early detection and treatment, the survival rate of OSCC remains poor and the incidence of OSCC has not decreased during the past decades. To explore potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for OSCC, we analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with OSCC using RNA sequencing technology. Methylation−regulated and differentially expressed genes (MeDEGs) of OSCC were further identified via an integrative approach by examining publicly available methylomic datasets together with our transcriptomic data. Protein−protein interaction (PPI) networks of MeDEGs were constructed and highly connected hub MeDEGs were identified from these PPI networks. Subsequently, expression and survival analyses of hub genes were performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) online tool. A total of 56 upregulated MeDEGs and 170 downregulated MeDEGs were identified in OSCC. Eleven hub genes with high degree of connectivity were picked out from the PPI networks constructed by those MeDEGs. Among them, the expression level of four hub genes (CTLA4, CDSN, ACTN2, and MYH11) were found to be significantly changed in the head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC) patients. Three hypomethylated hub genes (CTLA4, GPR29, and TNFSF11) and one hypermethylated hub gene (ISL1) were found to be significantly associated with overall survival (OS) of HNSC patients. Therefore, these hub genes may serve as potential DNA methylation biomarkers and therapeutic targets of OSCC.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Juan Jin ◽  
Di Zhang ◽  
Mingzhu Liang ◽  
Wenfang He ◽  
Jinshi Zhang

Abstract Background: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is the most common reason caused rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis worldwide. But the molecular mechanisms of ANCA - associated nephritis (AAN) have not been thoroughly expounded. So that,we aim to seek the potential molecular pathogenesis of AAN by bioinformatic.Result: Finally, four hub genes, PBK, CEP55, CCNB1 and BUB1B, were identified. These four hub geneswas verified higher in AAN than normal.Conclusion: Those four genes identified by integrated bioinformatics analysis may play a critical role in AAN. May offering a new insights and potential therapeutic to the AAN


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhixiao Xu ◽  
Chengshui Chen

Background: Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD) is one of the most severe complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is the main cause of mortality. In this study, we aimed to explore the key genes in SSc-ILD and analyze the relationship between key genes and immune cell infiltration as well as the key genes relevant to the hallmarks of cancer.Methods: Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) algorithm was implemented to explore hub genes in SSc-ILD samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Logistic regression analysis was performed to screen and verify the key gene related to SSc-ILD. CIBERSORT algorithms were utilized to analyze immune cell infiltration. Moreover, the correlation between the key genes and genes relevant to cancer was also evaluated. Furthermore, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) linking to PTGS2 were also explored.Results: In this study, we first performed WGCNA analysis for three GEO databases to find the potential hub genes in SSc-ILD. Subsequently, we determined PTGS2 was the key gene in SSC-ILD. Furthermore, in CIBERSORT analyses, PTGS2 were tightly correlated with immune cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and was negatively correlated with CD20 expression. Moreover, PTGS2 was associated with tumor growth. Then, MALAT1, NEAT1, NORAD, XIST identified might be the most potential upstream lncRNAs, and LIMS1 and RANBP2 might be the two most potential upstream circRNAs.Conclusion: Collectively, our findings elucidated that ncRNAs-mediated downregulation of PTGS2, as a key gene in SSc-ILD, was positively related to the occurrence of SSc-ILD and abnormal immunocyte infiltration. It could be a promising factor for SSc-ILD progression to malignancy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shoukai Yu

The spindle and kinetochore-associated complex is composed of three members: SKA1, SKA2, and SKA3. It is necessary for stabilizing spindle microtubules attaching to kinetochore (KT) in the middle stage of mitosis. The SKA complex is associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers. However, the role of SKA complex in rare malignant diseases, such as gliomas, has not been fully investigated. We investigated several databases, including Oncomine, UALCAN, and cBioPortal to explore the expression profile and prognostic significance of SKA complex in patients with gliomas. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways were used to analyze the potential enriched pathways. The genes co-expressed with SKA complex were identified and used for developing a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network using the STRING database. We found a significant overexpression of the mRNA levels of SKA1, SKA2, and SKA3 in patients with glioma patients. Higher expression of SKA1 and SKA3, but not SKA2, was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival of patients with glioma. In glioma, SKA complex was found to be involved in nuclear division, chromosome segregation, and DNA replication. The results of PPI network identified 10 hub genes (CCNB2, UBE2C, BUB1B, TPX2, CCNA2, CCNB1, MELK, TOP2A, PBK, and KIF11), all of which were overexpressed and negatively associated with prognosis of patients with glioma. In conclusion, our study sheds new insights into the biological role and prognostic significance of SKA complex in glioma.


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