Background: The morphology and morphometry of the scapula and its glenoid fossa and acromion process play a significant role in the mechanics of shoulder joint. A variable morphology is found in glenoid fossa that has clinical implications.
Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphology and morphometry of dry scapula with emphasis on glenoid fossa and acromion process.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the department of anatomy, for a period of 6 months from January 2021 to June 2021. A total of 100 unpaired dry scapula were included in the study. The morphology and dimensions were measured. The dimensions were summarized as mean and standard deviation. Statistical analysis was done Chi-square test and student’s t-test based on the variable types.
Results: Out of 100 scapulae studied, 48 were right sided and 52 were left sided. The mean of maximum length of the right scapula was 149.58±10.33 mm and the left side was 148.63±10.33 mm. Among the glenoid cavities, 54 were inverted comma shaped, 30 were pear shaped, and 16 were oval shaped. In one right-sided scapula Bony Spur Extends from Base of coracoid process to supra Scapular Notch.
Conclusion: Size and shape of the glenoid cavity are directly related to the dislocation of shoulder joint and may affect the results of total shoulder arthroplasty and rotator cuff surgeries. The present study analyzed the morphological types and diameters of the glenoid cavity in adult scapulae to improve the efficacy and minimize the failure rates in shoulder arthroplasty particularly those involving the glenoid component of the shoulder joint.
The purpose of the study was to develop an original modification of the Caliper method of image fractal analysis to determine the fractal dimension of linear anatomical objects. To develop the method, the linear contour of the outer surface of the cerebral cortex was chosen as the object of study. Magnetic resonance brain images in coronal projection were used. The original modification of the Caliper method includes image analysis using Adobe Photoshop CS5 software or its analogues. The linear contour of the studied object is selected, followed by stepwise smoothing of the contour with different smoothing radius. At the 1st stage of fractal analysis smoothing is not applied, at the 2nd stage the smoothing radius is 2 pixels, the 3rd – 4 pixels, the 4th – 8 pixels, the 5th – 16 pixels. At each stage, the contour length in pixels is measured (P). The size of the fractal measurement unit (G) at the 1st stage of fractal analysis is 1 pixel, the 2nd stage – 2 pixels, the 3rd stage – 4 pixels, the 4th stage – 8 pixels, the 5th stage – 16 pixels. The contour smoothing radius, the size of the fractal measurement units and the number of stages of fractal analysis can be changed depending on the characteristics of the studied structure, size, scale and image resolution. Based on the values of the perimeter and the size of the fractal measurement units, the number of fractal measurement units covering the studied object (N) is calculated: N=P/G. The fractal dimension value is calculated based on the N and G values. The modification of the Caliper method described in this paper is automatized and does not require much time required for manual calculation. In addition, compared to the classic Caliper method, this modification is more accurate because the measurement is performed automatically. The main limitation of the developed modification is the ability to determine the fractal dimension of only closed contours of studied structures or closed linear structures, because this method involves determining the length of the closed perimeter of the selected image area. The modified Caliper method of image fractal analysis described in this paper can be used in morphology and other fields of medicine for fractal analysis of linear objects: external and internal linear contours of different anatomical structures (cerebellum, cerebral hemispheres) and pathological foci (tumors, foci of necrosis, fibrosis, etc.).
Objectives to analyze the number and sum of diameters of microgliocytes in the precentral gyrus cortex and the corpus callosum of a person in the early adulthood and of an old person and to identify the patterns of neurofilaments expression in these parts of the brain.
Material and methods. The results of a sectional study of the cerebral cortex in the precentral gyrus and corpus callosum using hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed, and an immunohistochemical study was performed using antibodies to neurofilaments. The dead were divided into two groups depending on their age. The group I included 23 men and 27 women in their early adulthood, aged from 23 to 28 years; the group II included 19 men and 25 women of the old age from 75 to 83 years. We examined the number of microgliocytes, the sum of their diameters, and the expression of neurofilament proteins in the tissue.
Results. Morphometric study of autopsy material showed that in the corpus callosum, as well as in the cortex of the precentral gyrus, there was an age-related statistically significant increase in the number of microgliocytes and the sum of their diameters (p 0.001). We found that the expression of neurofilaments in the cortex of the precentral gyrus is uniform both in the early adulthood and in old age. In the corpus callosum tissue, the age-related neurodegenerative changes are more pronounced: by old age, there is a significant decrease in the expression of neurofilaments with the formation of their rarefaction sites in the areas of microgliocyte clusters.
Conclusion. The results of morphological study of the precentral gyrus cortex and corpus callosum of two age groups testify that the number and sum of diameters of microgliocytes responsible for the utilization of spent myelin have a certain relationship with age and expression of neurofilaments in the nervous tissue.
The sacrum is a large triangular bone formed by fusion of five sacral vertebrae and wedged between two hip bones. Dimension of sacrum varies from region to region therefore morphometric study of sacrum in population of Bihar is important for proper fixation during orthopedic procedure in trauma patients. : The objectives of this study was to evaluate the morphometric parameters of sacrum so that a data can be generated from local population. M: The present study was done on 110 human sacra of known sex (62 male and 48 female) collected from department of Anatomy, IGIMS, Patna and also from other medical colleges of Bihar. Maximum length of sacrum, curved length of sacrum, maximum breadth of sacrum, antero-posterior diameter of the body of first sacral vertebra, transverse diameter of the body of first sacral vertebra and maximum length of articular surface of sacrum were measured. Mean value of sacral straight length were 104.55 cm in male and 94.66 cm in female, Curve length 112.03 cm in male and 103.98 cm in female, Width of sacrum 101.53 cm in male and 105.67 cm in female. Transverse diameter of body of 1st sacral vertebra were 46.53 cm and 40.85 cm in male and female respectively, antero-posterior diameter of body of 1st sacral vertebra were 29.89 cm and 27.73 cm in male and female respectively, Length of auricular surface were 56.08 cm and 54.77 cm respectively. Sacral index, curvature index, index of body of first sacral vertebra, corpora-basal index and auricular index were calculated. Morphometric study of sacrum in population of Bihar is important because dimension of sacrum varies from region to region and this is important for proper fixation during orthopedic procedure in trauma patients.
The piriform aperture (PA) is the skeletal aperture located in the middle part of the face. There are many variations in morphometric measurements of nasal bones, piriform apertures and their shapes in different population. Objective of present study was to study morphological and morphometric features of nasal bone and piriform aperture. Adult human skulls available from collection of dried skulls were used for study purpose. Skull bones of unknown age and sex were obtained. Height, width of nasal bone, height, upper and lower width of piriform aperture, shapes of nasal bone and piriform aperture were observed. Height, upper width and lower width of piriform aperture were greater in male as compared to female. This difference was not statistically significant for upper width of piriform aperture (p=0.49) and for lower width of piriform aperture (p= 0.65) while the difference in height of piriform aperture was statistically significant. (p <0.0001).Differences in Height and width of nasal bone were not statistically significant among male and female nasal bones. Most common shape of nasal bone observed was Type A followed by Type B and C. Most common shape of piriform aperture was triangular to oval (50.00) in both the gender. Majority finding of the present study are in concordance with Indian population studies while significant differences have been noted in comparison to the morphometric measurements of Turkish, Korean, Brazilian and Anatolian population. These variations might be because of differences in ethnicity.
Background: Spleen is one of the largest lymphoid organs that are involved in haemopoitic function also during fetal life. Its anatomy is useful not only for Anatomist but also for Surgeons, Radiologists and Physicians. A lot of variations are observed in the spleen from its shape to size which is important to diagnose or treat the number of diseases.
Methodology: This study was carried out on 60 spleens in the dissection hall of our medical college which were removed during routine undergraduate dissection. The parameters studies were shape of the spleen, number of notches (single or multiple), location of notches (Superior or inferior border), weight, breadth, width or length.
Results: The 90% spleens has single notch. The weight of the spleens ranges from 89 gm to 220 gm with an average 142.6 gm. Range of breadth observed 3.5cm to7.4cm with an average 5.8cm, Range of width observed 2.8cm to 5.7cm with an average 4.1cm. Range of length observed 8.1cm to13.2cm with an average 11.7cm.
Conclusion: Morphological variation is very common in spleen and varies according to the genetic, geographic, nutrition and work habits of individual and varies regions to regions of India. Morphological analysis is under reported and need to be carry out at different regions and places for obtaining more accurate data.
Aim: The aim of our study was to perform a morphometric analysis of the mental foramen in senegalese context. Material and method: The study was performed on thirty-nine dry mandibles of adult humans. On these mandibles, the number of mental foramen present and their shape were noted on inspection. The situation of the foramen in relation to the lower teeth was studied according to a methodology already described. The following measurements were made: the distance between the foramen and the other landmarks of the mandible (symphysis, basilar border, posterior border), vertical and horizontal diameters. Results: The number of mental foramina were 39 on the right and 40 on the left: one mandible presented a double foramen on the left. The oval shape was predominant. The most frequent situation was below the second premolar on both sides. The mean distance between the foramen and the mandibular symphysis was 25mm on both sides. The distance between the foramen and the basilar border of the mandible was on average 13mm on the right and 14mm on the left. The distance between the foramen and the posterior border of the mandible was on average 72mm on the right and 73mm on the left. The average vertical diameter was 33mm on the right and 32mm on the left, and the average horizontal diameter was 4mm on both sides. Conclusion: Mental foramen is a constant anatomical structure, found on all the mandibles studied. The results can be superimposed on those described in the majority of studies carried out on the mental foramen. Key words: Mental Foramen, Mandible Anatomy, Morphometry.