liver diseases
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2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 1-3
Emmanuel A. Tsochatzis ◽  
Jef Verbeek

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 182
Annalisa Cespiati ◽  
Marica Meroni ◽  
Rosa Lombardi ◽  
Giovanna Oberti ◽  
Paola Dongiovanni ◽  

Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle strength, mass and function and it is a predictor of mortality. Sarcopenia is not only a geriatric disease, but it is related to several chronic conditions, including liver diseases in both its early and advanced stages. Despite the increasing number of studies exploring the role of sarcopenia in the early stages of chronic liver disease (CLD), its prevalence and the relationship between these two clinical entities are still controversial. Myosteatosis is characterized by fat accumulation in the muscles and it is related to advanced liver disease, although its role in the early stages is still under researched. Therefore, in this narrative review, we firstly aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying sarcopenia and myosteatosis in the early stage of CLD across different aetiologies (mainly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol-related liver disease and viral hepatitis). Secondly, due to the increasing prevalence of sarcopenia worldwide, we aimed to revise the current and the future therapeutic approaches for the management of sarcopenia in CLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Marie-Luise Bouvier ◽  
Karin Fehsel ◽  
Andrea Schmitt ◽  
Eva Meisenzahl-Lechner ◽  
Wolfgang Gaebel ◽  

Abstract Background Patients with liver diseases often have some form of anemia. Hematological dyscrasias are known side effects of antipsychotic drug medication and the occurrence of agranulocytosis under clozapine is well described. However, the sex-dependent impact of clozapine and haloperidol on erythrocytes and symptoms like anemia, and its association with hepatic iron metabolism has not yet been completely clarified. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of both antipsychotic drugs on blood parameters and iron metabolism in the liver of male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Methods After puberty, rats were treated orally with haloperidol or clozapine for 12 weeks. Blood count parameters, serum ferritin, and liver transferrin bound iron were determined by automated counter. Hemosiderin (Fe3+) was detected in liver sections by Perl’s Prussian blue staining. Liver hemoxygenase (HO-1), 5’aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS1), hepcidin, heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI), cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and 1A2 (CYP1A2) were determined by Western blotting. Results We found anemia with decreased erythrocyte counts, associated with lower hemoglobin and hematocrit, in females with haloperidol treatment. Males with clozapine medication showed reduced hemoglobin and increased red cell distribution width (RDW) without changes in erythrocyte numbers. High levels of hepatic hemosiderin were found in the female clozapine and haloperidol medicated groups. Liver HRI was significantly elevated in male clozapine medicated rats. CYP1A2 was significantly reduced in clozapine medicated females. Conclusions The characteristics of anemia under haloperidol and clozapine medication depend on the administered antipsychotic drug and on sex. We suggest that anemia in rats under antipsychotic drug medication is a sign of an underlying liver injury induced by the drugs. Changing hepatic iron metabolism under clozapine and haloperidol may help to reduce these effects of liver diseases.

Katarzyna Trzos ◽  
Natalia Pydyn ◽  
Jolanta Jura ◽  
Jerzy Kotlinowski

AbstractMurine models of human diseases are of outmost importance for both studying molecular mechanisms driving their development and testing new treatment strategies. In this review, we first discuss the etiology and risk factors for autoimmune liver disease, including primary biliary cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Second, we highlight important features of murine transgenic models that make them useful for basic scientists, drug developers and clinical researchers. Next, a brief description of each disease is followed by the characterization of selected animal models.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaoxue Li ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Haiyuan Yang ◽  
Yifan Dai

About one-fifth of the population suffers from liver diseases in China, meaning that liver disorders are prominent causative factors relating to the Chinese mortality rate. For patients with end-stage liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma or acute liver diseases with life-threatening liver dysfunction, allogeneic liver transplantation is the only life-saving treatment. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative for patients with acute liver failure or those considered high risk for major surgery, particularly for the bridge-to-transplant period. However, the lack of donors has become a serious global problem. The clinical application of porcine xenogeneic livers and hepatocytes remains a potential solution to alleviate the donor shortage. Pig grafts of xenotransplantation play roles in providing liver support in recipients, together with the occurrence of rejection, thrombocytopenia, and blood coagulation dysfunction. In this review, we present an overview of the development, potential therapeutic impact, and remaining barriers in the clinical application of pig liver and hepatocyte xenotransplantation to humans and non-human primates. Donor pigs with optimized genetic modification combinations and highly effective immunosuppressive regimens should be further explored to improve the outcomes of xenogeneic liver and hepatocyte transplantation.

2022 ◽  
Yohei Shirakami ◽  
Junichi Kato ◽  
Toshihide Maeda ◽  
Takayasu Ideta ◽  
Hiroyasu Sakai ◽  

Abstract Although liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy, the mechanism behind their association has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of aging and NASH on the skeletal muscle and the interaction between the liver and muscle were investigated using a diet-induced NASH model in senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). A total of four groups of SAM and its control mice were fed either an NASH-inducing or control diet. In the SAM/NASH group, the histopathology of NASH and markers of oxidative stress were significant. Skeletal muscles were also markedly atrophied. The expression of the ubiquitin ligase Murf1 in the muscle was significantly increased with muscle atrophy, while that of Tnfa was not significantly different. In contrast, the hepatic Tnfa expression and serum TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the SAM/NASH group. These results suggest that liver-derived TNF-α might promote muscle atrophy associated with steatohepatitis and aging through Murf-1. The metabolomic analysis of skeletal muscle indicated higher spermidine and lower tryptophan levels in the NASH-diet group. The findings of this study revealed an aspect of liver-muscle interaction, which might be important in developing treatments for sarcopenia associated with liver diseases.

2022 ◽  
Taeho Kwon ◽  
Ying-Hao Han ◽  
Xin-Mei He ◽  
Ying-Ying Mao ◽  
Xuan-Chen Liu ◽  

Abstract The incidence of liver diseases has been increasing steadily. However, it has some shortcomings, such as high cost and organ donor scarcity. The application of stem cell research has brought new ideas for the treatment of liver diseases. Therefore, it is particularly important to clarify the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of differentiation of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) into liver cells. Herein, we screened differentially expressed genes between hepatocytes and untreated BMSCs to identify the genes responsible for the differentiation of BMSCs into hepatocytes. GSE30419 gene microarray data of BMSCs and GSE72088 gene microarray data of primary hepatocytes were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Transcriptome Analysis Console software showed that 1896 genes were upregulated and 2506 were downregulated in hepatocytes as compared with BMSCs. Hub genes were analyzed using the STRING, revealing that two hub genes, Cat and Cyp2e1, play a pivotal role in oxidation-reduction process. The results indicate that the lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA interaction chain may play an important role in the differentiation of BMSCs into hepatocytes, which provides a new therapeutic target for liver disease treatment.

Zoonoses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Zhangyan Zhao ◽  
Haicheng Tang ◽  
Feng Li

Background: Every year, approximately 800,000 people die from liver diseases associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Complications outside the liver are common, such as fungal lung infections and viral infections. These complications may be associated with poor immune function, thus making clinical treatment difficult and increasing the risk of death. Therefore, HBV-infection-related liver diseases are worthy of clinical attention and further research. Case summary: We report a case of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in which the patient received entecavir as an anti-HBV treatment after liver dysfunction. During the treatment, the patient was diagnosed with measles and severe viral pneumonia. After comprehensive treatment, including active antiviral medications and mechanical ventilation, the patient recovered and was discharged. Conclusion: HBV infection causes liver damage, affects immune function, and is likely to be associated with viral infections such as measles. Consequently, infections may lead to complications, such as severe viral pneumonia, that endanger patients’ lives. To decrease complications and mortality, better understanding of the disease is necessary to enable early diagnosis.

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