ductal adenocarcinoma
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 101321
Hyemin Kim ◽  
Chan Mi Heo ◽  
Jinmyeong Oh ◽  
Hwe Hoon Chung ◽  
Eun Mi Lee ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yi Chen ◽  
Didi Chen ◽  
Qiang Wang ◽  
Yajing Xu ◽  
Xiaowei Huang ◽  

BackgroundCancer immunotherapy has produced significant positive clinical effects in a variety of tumor types. However, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is widely considered to be a “cold” cancer with poor immunogenicity. Our aim is to determine the detailed immune features of PDAC to seek new treatment strategies.MethodsThe immune cell abundance of PDAC patients was evaluated with the single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) using 119 immune gene signatures. Based on these data, patients were classified into different immune subtypes (ISs) according to immune gene signatures. We analyzed their response patterns to immunotherapy in the datasets, then established an immune index to reflect the different degrees of immune infiltration through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, potential prognostic markers associated with the immune index were identified based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) that was functionally validated in vitro.ResultsThree ISs were identified in PDAC, of which IS3 had the best prognosis across all three cohorts. The different expressions of immune profiles among the three ISs indicated a distinct responsiveness to immunotherapies in PDAC subtypes. By calculating the immune index, we found that the IS3 represented higher immune infiltration, while IS1 represented lower immune infiltration. Among the investigated signatures, we identified ZNF185, FANCG, and CSTF2 as risk factors associated with immune index that could potentially facilitate diagnosis and could be therapeutic target markers in PDAC patients.ConclusionsOur findings identified immunologic subtypes of PDAC with distinct prognostic implications, which allowed us to establish an immune index to represent the immune infiltration in each subtype. These results show the importance of continuing investigation of immunotherapy and will allow clinical workers to personalized treatment more effectively in PDAC patients.

Mira Lanki ◽  
Hanna Seppänen ◽  
Harri Mustonen ◽  
Aino Salmiheimo ◽  
Ulf-Håkan Stenman ◽  

Abstract Background For prognostic evaluation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the only well-established serum marker is carbohydrate antigen CA19-9. To improve the accuracy of survival prediction, we tested the efficacy of inflammatory serum markers. Methods A preoperative serum panel comprising 48 cytokines plus high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) was analyzed in 173 stage I–III PDAC patients. Analysis of the effect of serum markers on survival utilized the Cox regression model, with the most promising cytokines chosen with the aid of the lasso method. We formed a reference model comprising age, gender, tumor stage, adjuvant chemotherapy status, and CA19-9 level. Our prognostic study model incorporated these data plus hs-CRP and the cytokines. We constructed time-dependent ROC curves and calculated an integrated time-averaged area under the curve (iAUC) for both models from 1 to 10 years after surgery. Results Hs-CRP and the cytokines CTACK, MIF, IL-1β, IL-3, GRO-α, M-CSF, and SCF, were our choices for the prognostic study model, in which the iAUC was 0.837 (95% CI 0.796–0.902), compared to the reference model’s 0.759 (95% CI 0.691–0.836, NS). These models divided the patients into two groups based on the maximum value of Youden’s index at 7.5 years. In our study model, 60th percentile survival times were 4.5 (95% CI 3.7–NA) years (predicted high-survival group, n = 34) and 1.3 (95% CI 1.0–1.7) years (predicted low-survival group, n = 128), log rank p < 0.001. By the reference model, the 60th percentile survival times were 2.8 (95% CI 2.1–4.4) years (predicted high-survival group, n = 44) and 1.3 (95% CI 1.0–1.7) years (predicted low-survival group, n = 118), log rank p < 0.001. Conclusion Hs-CRP and the seven cytokines added to the reference model including CA19-9 are potential prognostic factors for improved survival prediction for PDAC patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Daniel C. Osei-Bordom ◽  
Gagandeep Sachdeva ◽  
Niki Christou

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) represent one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Survival is still low due to diagnosis at an advanced stage and resistance to treatment. Herein, we review the main types of liquid biopsy able to help in both prognosis and adaptation of treatments.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Jane S. Kim ◽  
Alan D. Proia ◽  
Jason Liss ◽  
Joel Morgenlander ◽  
Landon C. Meekins

Daniel Schreyer ◽  
John P. Neoptolemos ◽  
Simon T. Barry ◽  
Peter Bailey

Comprehensive molecular landscaping studies reveal a potentially brighter future for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Blood-borne biomarkers obtained from minimally invasive “liquid biopsies” are now being trialled for early disease detection and to track responses to therapy. Integrated genomic and transcriptomic studies using resectable tumour material have defined intrinsic patient subtypes and actionable genomic segments that promise a shift towards genome-guided patient management. Multimodal mapping of PDAC using spatially resolved single cell transcriptomics and imaging techniques has identified new potentially therapeutically actionable cellular targets and is providing new insights into PDAC tumour heterogeneity. Despite these rapid advances, defining biomarkers for patient selection remain limited. This review examines the current PDAC cancer biomarker ecosystem (identified in tumour and blood) and explores how advances in single cell sequencing and spatially resolved imaging modalities are being used to uncover new targets for therapeutic intervention and are transforming our understanding of this difficult to treat disease.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 376
Natália Alves ◽  
Megan Schuurmans ◽  
Geke Litjens ◽  
Joeran S. Bosma ◽  
John Hermans ◽  

Early detection improves prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but is challenging as lesions are often small and poorly defined on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans (CE-CT). Deep learning can facilitate PDAC diagnosis; however, current models still fail to identify small (<2 cm) lesions. In this study, state-of-the-art deep learning models were used to develop an automatic framework for PDAC detection, focusing on small lesions. Additionally, the impact of integrating the surrounding anatomy was investigated. CE-CT scans from a cohort of 119 pathology-proven PDAC patients and a cohort of 123 patients without PDAC were used to train a nnUnet for automatic lesion detection and segmentation (nnUnet_T). Two additional nnUnets were trained to investigate the impact of anatomy integration: (1) segmenting the pancreas and tumor (nnUnet_TP), and (2) segmenting the pancreas, tumor, and multiple surrounding anatomical structures (nnUnet_MS). An external, publicly available test set was used to compare the performance of the three networks. The nnUnet_MS achieved the best performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91 for the whole test set and 0.88 for tumors <2 cm, showing that state-of-the-art deep learning can detect small PDAC and benefits from anatomy information.

2022 ◽  
Daniel R Plaugher ◽  
Boris Aguilar ◽  
David Murrugarra

Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is widely known for its poor prognosis because it is often diagnosed when the cancer is in a later stage. We built a model to analyze the microenvironment of pancreatic cancer in order to better understand the interplay between pancreatic cancer, stellate cells, and their signaling cytokines. Specifically, we have used our model to study the impact of inducing four common mutations: KRAS, TP53, SMAD4, and CDKN2A. After implementing the various mutation combinations, we used our stochastic simulator to derive aggressiveness scores based on simulated attractor probabilities and long-term trajectory approximations. These aggression scores were then corroborated with clinical data. Moreover, we found sets of control targets that are effective among common mutations. These control sets contain nodes within both the pancreatic cancer cell and the pancreatic stellate cell, including PIP3, RAF, PIK3 and BAX in pancreatic cancer cell as well as ERK and PIK3 pancreatic stellate cell. Many of these nodes were found to be differentially expressed among pancreatic cancer patients in the TCGA database. Furthermore, literature suggests that many of these nodes can be targeted by drugs currently in circulation. The results herein help provide a proof of concept in the path towards personalized medicine through a means of mathematical systems biology. All data and code used for running simulations, statistical analysis, and plotting is available on a GitHub repository at https://github.com/drplaugher/PCC_Mutations .

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