Intake Session
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2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (39) ◽  
pp. 137-149
Syamsul Azizul Marinsah ◽  
Abang Mohd. Razif Abang Muis ◽  
Mohd. Sohaimi Esa ◽  
Irma Wani Othman ◽  
Habibah @ Artini Ramlie ◽  

The Philosophy and Contemporary Issues (FIS) course is one of the generic courses that must be taken by students in all Malaysian HEIs starting from the 2019/2020 intake session. The FIS module was developed with the aim of preparing students to be able to think critically and integrally in responding to various thinking challenges related to current issues. Critical thinking is an important element that needs to be applied in the curriculum of study at all levels. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyse the elements of the formation of critical thinking in the study modules of FIS courses implemented at Universiti Malaysia Sabah. This study is included in a qualitative study. Thus, this study uses a document analysis design consisting of FIS modules, journals, and review articles related to the formation of critical thinking. The results of the study found that there are several elements of skills and sub-skills that can contribute towards the formation and application of critical thinking in the study modules of FIS courses offered at Universiti Malaysia Sabah. By studying this course, it is hoped that students' appreciation of this course will continue to increase and can help in the process of forming critical thinking in line with the direction of the national education system, namely value-based education.

2020 ◽  
pp. 147332502092301
Ora Nakash ◽  
Michal Cohen ◽  
Liron Aharoni ◽  
Shir Zur ◽  
Maayan Nagar

Therapists are faced with the challenge of developing effective ways to advance cross-cultural engagement with a rapidly growing diverse client population. In this qualitative study, we characterized the way clients and therapists described the quality of working alliance during the mental health intake and examined whether these descriptions vary as a function of their social identities. We conducted in-depth interviews with Ashkenazi (socially advantaged group; n = 22) therapists and their Mizrahi (socially disadvantaged group n = 29) or Ashkenazi (n = 26) clients immediately following their intake session in four mental health clinics in Israel. We performed a thematic analysis. Overall, interrater reliability among three raters who coded the narratives was high (kappa = 0.72, therapist; 0.70, client). Across all client and therapist interviews, we identified eight central themes detailing different qualities of the working alliance: (1) feeling understood, (2) feeling comfortable, (3) openness and cooperation, (4) trust, (5) empathy and identification, (6) frustration and disappointment, (7) anger and hostility, and (8) emotional disengagement. On average, clients reported 2.56 (standard deviation = 1.17) and therapists described 2.65 (standard deviation = 1.45) themes in each session. Overall, concordant and discordant dyads described similar themes with few exceptions. In particular, being part of a discordant dyad may affect the client’s interpretation of non-verbal communication as well as the therapist’s evaluation of the client’s openness and trustworthiness. Although less frequent, when anger and hostility were described by therapists, these characterized the interaction with Mizrahi clients. We discuss implications to care including the need to promote a culturally humble approach to providing care for minorities.

Jeffrey A. Kottler ◽  
Richard S. Balkin

In Intake Interviews, the “Real” Problem, and How to Fix It, the authors identify the process and unrealistic expectations of the intake interview. With a 60 to 90 minute framework, the clinician is to identify problems, diagnose, and document a treatment plan. The intake interview often is a formal or standardized process for therapy—a process that may neither be formal nor standardized. Moreover, there is very poor consistency on how to interpret information form an intake session. Clinicians will often disagree on diagnoses and problem areas. Therapists inevitably will develop very diverse treatment plans. Diagnoses tend to be highly inconsistent among clinicians and often contribute more to client stigma than care. Moreover, the formal process of the intake interview may take away from the client’s agenda, which is important to understanding the client and the client returning for therapy.

Maya Lavie-Ajayi ◽  
Ora Nakash

This chapter discusses the difficulty faced by therapists when, instead of a story of emotional problems, they are presented in the course of a professional consultation with a narrative about social injustice. The chapter includes a detailed analysis of a single intake session and subsequent post-intake interviews, taken from a large study on intakes in mental health clinics with culturally diverse populations in Israel. The client–subject of this chapter presented herself to a mental health facility, claiming a state of crisis due to the downgrading of her employment status, which she attributed to systematic corporate injustice. During the intake interview, there were a number of disagreements between the client and the therapist. While the client sought to relate a narrative of injustice, the therapist insisted on identifying an illness narrative. This chapter argues that the battle of narratives is a political battle, and highlights the political power wielded by therapists in defining diagnoses and treatment recommendations.

Sharon Rae Jenkins ◽  
Rachel B. Nowlin

Abstract. This naturalistic pilot study examined interpersonal decentering, a form of social cognitive maturity and self–other mentalizing scored from the Thematic Apperception Test, as a client personality variable that might predict psychotherapy retention and clients’ perceptions of in-session process. Clients having difficulty with mature decentering might struggle to engage in therapy, need different interventions, and be at risk for therapy dropout. Thematic Apperception Test stories were gathered from new outpatient therapy clients soon after their intake session. Interpersonal decentering scores from the nine stories were used to predict outpatients’ therapy attrition or perceptions of psychotherapy process four to six sessions later. Clients’ perceptions of therapy events commonly associated differentially with psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapies were measured using self-rated items from the Psychotherapy Process Q-set. Lower decentering scores predicted early attrition (before Session 6). Clients with more mature decentering scores reported more frequent psychodynamic relative to cognitive-behavioral therapy process events in these early sessions. Lower decentering maturity may limit clients’ processing of psychodynamic interventions. Interpersonal decentering may be a valuable, easy-to-score assessment tool for predicting attrition risk and making treatment planning recommendations for intervention strategies.

2018 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 105-117
Amanda Karen Patricia Roberts

The purpose of this pre-experimental case study was to explore the efficacy and safety of the Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Group Traumatic Episode Protocol (G-TEP) in the psychological treatment of cancer survivors and its potential effects on posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 35) were patients with various types of cancer, in different stages, initial or recurring, with diagnosis or oncology treatment received within the past year. Following an individual psychoeducational intake session, participants received two 90-minute EMDR G-TEP sessions, administered on consecutive days. They were randomly assigned to a treatment group or a delayed treatment group. Assessments were administered at pre, post, and follow-up using the Short PostTraumatic Stress Disorder Interview (SPRINT), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Repeated measures comparisons of PTSD symptoms, anxiety, and depression revealed significant differences between pretest and posttest, with most results maintained at follow-up. Pre-follow-up effect sizes showed medium effects. These promising results suggest the value in providing a lengthier course of treatment. They support the need for research with large sample, randomized clinical trials to examine the viability of providing EMDR G-TEP in the psychological treatment of cancer survivors. No serious adverse effects were reported and we conclude that the EMDR G-TEP may be effective and safe in the psychological treatment of an oncology population.

2018 ◽  
Vol 24 (14) ◽  
pp. 2084-2099 ◽  
Naama Gershy ◽  
Sarah A. O. Gray

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the role of parental emotion regulation (ER) and parental mentalization as possible contributors to hostile and coercive parenting in families of children with ADHD. Method: Seventy-four Israeli families (64 mothers and 48 fathers) seeking parent training for child ADHD completed measures during the intake session. Measures included parental ER; parental mentalization; hostile, coercive, and submissive parenting; and child symptoms. Results: Findings suggested a relationship between parental ER and coercive parenting independent of child age, symptom level, and parental mentalization. Parental mentalization appeared to buffer against hostility specifically among parents with low ER capacities. Patterns were parallel for mothers and fathers. Conclusion: Study findings highlight the importance of evaluating and addressing parental ER in interventions attempting to reduce coercive parenting. The findings also highlight the potential role of parental mentalization as a protective mechanism against hostile parenting in families of children with ADHD.

2017 ◽  
Vol 1 (S1) ◽  
pp. 80-80
Sarah Terry ◽  
Molly Cox ◽  
Alexandra Linley ◽  
Jilian O’Neill ◽  
Laura Dreer

OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To characterize parent communication frequency and content between systems of care (medical, school, and sports/recreation) of concussed youth who are in prolonged recovery. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this ongoing study, 16 concussed youth (average age=14.9 years, SD=1.5; 31.2% female and 68.8% male) and their parent study partner (average age=44.3 years, SD=4.3; 87.3% female and 12.5% male) have been enrolled to date from sports medicine clinics. Demographic information was obtained during the initial clinic intake session. Weekly phone calls were also conducted with the parent and child until the child was considered asymptomatic (ie, reporting no symptoms on the SCAT3), to collect data on communication with the school, sport/recreation, and medical systems throughout the recovery process. For the purpose of this study, we evaluated communication patterns of those parents who had a child in prolonged recovery (ie, symptomatic 14 d or more post-concussion injury). Communication variables included frequency (ie, number of times a parent contacted or attempted to contact a system of care) and content or topic discussed during the contact event. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 16 enrolled participants to date, 68.8% (n=11) experienced concussion related symptoms 14 days postinjury (M=22.2, SD=4.6) at the time of their 2 week follow-up call and were thus considered to be in prolonged recovery. Of those 11, 81.8% (n=9) of parents reported communicating with the school system at some point between the initial clinic intake session and the 2 week follow-up phone call. The frequency of communication for this period ranged between 0 and 10 instances of contact (M=2.5, SD=2.9). Of the 11 prolonged cases, 8 participants were members of sports teams. Sixty-three percent (n=5) of those parents with a child on a sports team communicated with a coach while none of the parents contacted a team athletic trainer. The frequency of communication with the coach ranged from 0 to 8 (M=1.5, SD=2.5) over the course of 2 weeks from enrollment. With regards to the medical system, the majority of parents (72.7%, n=8) communicated at least once with a medical professional during the same time period. The frequency of communication with the medical system ranged from 0 to 8 (M=2.2, SD=2.6) points of contact. Themes that arose for communicating with the school system included informing school personnel of academic accommodations prescribed by the physician, explaining absences, and concerns about missed academic work and grades. The content of communication with the sports system (ie, coach) pertained to return-to-play issues as well as progress updates on recovery. Themes for communication with the medical system were centered on scheduling appointments, attending follow-up medical appointments, and starting return-to-play protocols. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Parents of concussed youth who were still in prolonged recovery, for the most part, appear engaged in communicating with multiple systems of care. However, a subset of parents did not participate in contact with these systems. Further discussion of these findings will highlight areas for improvement in concussion management as well as strategies parents can utilize to advocate for their child in terms of return-to-learn and recovery.

2016 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 60-77 ◽  
Maya Lavie-Ajayi ◽  
Ora Nakash

Critical approaches in psychology and social work criticizing the current mainstream psychotherapy discourse have been gaining more ground in recent decades. Yet, little empirical research has, to date, explored therapy in regular practice to identify the discursive resources employed during the clinical encounter and the way such discourses create and maintain power differences and the boundaries of the therapeutic interaction. This paper is rooted within a post-structural perspective based on Foucauldian analysis which sees power as dispersed throughout the social field and emphasizes the multiple ways in which power differences are created and maintained through accepted forms of discourse and knowledge. Data were drawn from a large study of mental health intakes in clinics in Israel working with culturally diverse populations. We conducted critical discourse analysis on a single dyad including transcription of a recorded intake session and post-intake interviews with the client and the therapist. Based on existing critique of psychotherapeutic discourse for its individualistic and apolitical view, we explored how the hegemonic psychotherapy discourse is negotiated in real practice, the ideology it carries, and the power differences it perpetuates. We shed light on the way this discourse conceals social injustice and contributes to the disempowerment of the client and ultimately to a poorer quality of services.

2015 ◽  
Vol 76 (07) ◽  
pp. e862-e869 ◽  
Ora Nakash ◽  
Maayan Nagar ◽  
Yaniv Kanat-Maymon

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