This study investigated the feasibility of using nanofibrilliated celluloses (CNF) (0.1% by weight of binder materials) with three oxidation degrees, no oxidation (NCNF), low oxidation (LCNF), and high oxidation (HCNF), as a viscosity-modifying agent (VMA) to develop polyethylene fiber (PE)-engineered cementitious composites (ECC). Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential were performed to characterize the properties of the CNF with different oxidation degrees. More stable CNF suspensions could be obtained due to the increasing oxidation degree. Rheology tests showed that CNF replacing VMA could modify the plastic viscosity and yield stress of the fresh matrices. With increasing the oxidation degree of CNF, a significant enhancement was seen for the rheological parameters. It was conducted that CNF could increase the compressive strength, the tensile stress, the nominal flexural strength, and the fracture toughness compared with ECC using VMA, and much higher oxidation degrees yielded higher enhancements (HCNF > LCNF > NCNF). ECC using CNF to replace VMA also achieved ultra-high ductility behavior with the tensile strain of over 8% and the saturated multiple cracking pattern. These finds were supplemented by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), which showed that the degree of hydration increased with increasing CNF surface oxidation degree. Additionally, the morphology images of PE fibers were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).
A systematic modeling approach was scrutinized to develop a kinetic model and a novel monolith channel geometry was designed for NH3 selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) over Cu-ZSM-5. The redox characteristic of Cu-based catalysts and the variations of NH3, NOx concentration, and NOx conversion along the axis in porous media channels were studied. The relative pressure drop in different channels, the variations of NH3 and NOx conversion efficiency were analyzed. The model mainly considers NH3 adsorption and desorption, NH3 oxidation, NO oxidation, and NOx reduction. The results showed that the model could accurately predict the NH3-SCR reaction. In addition, it was found that the Cu-based zeolite catalyst had poor low-temperature catalytic performance and good high-temperature activity. Moreover, the catalytic reaction of NH3-SCR was mainly concentrated in the upper part of the reactor. In addition, the hexagonal channel could effectively improve the diffusion rate of gas reactants to the catalyst wall, reduce the pressure drop and improve the catalytic conversion efficiencies of NH3 and NOx.
Layered van der Waals semimetallic Td-WTe2, exhibiting intriguing properties which include non-saturating extreme positive magnetoresistance (MR) and tunable chiral anomaly, has emerged as a model topological type-II Weyl semimetal system. Here, ∼45 nm thick mechanically exfoliated flakes of Td-WTe2 are studied via atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, low-T/high-μ0H magnetotransport measurements and optical reflectivity. The contribution of anisotropy of the Fermi liquid state to the origin of the large positive transverse MR⊥ and the signature of chiral anomaly of the type-II Weyl Fermions are reported. The samples are found to be stable in air and no oxidation or degradation of the electronic properties is observed. A transverse MR⊥∼1200 % and an average carrier mobility of 5000 cm2V−1s−1 at T=5K for an applied perpendicular field μ0H⊥=7T are established. The system follows a Fermi liquid model for T≤50K and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface is concluded to be at the origin of the observed positive MR. Optical reflectivity measurements confirm the anisotropy of the electronic behaviour. The relative orientation of the crystal axes and of the applied electric and magnetic fields is proven to determine the observed chiral anomaly in the in-plane magnetotransport. The observed chiral anomaly in the WTe2 flakes is found to persist up to T=120K, a temperature at least four times higher than the ones reported to date.