Magnetic skyrmions are promising potential information carriers for future spintronic devices owing to their nanoscale size, non-volatility and high mobility. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled manipulation of skyrmion motion and its implementation in a new concept of racetrack logical device by introducing an inhomogeneous perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) via micromagnetic simulation. Here, the inhomogeneous PMA can be introduced by a capping nano-island that serves as a tunable potential barriers/well which can effectively modulate the size and shape of isolated skyrmion. Using the inhomogeneous PMA in skyrmion-based racetrack enables the manipulation of skyrmion motion behaviors, for instance, blocking, trapping or allowing passing the injected skyrmion. In addition, the skyrmion trapping operation can be further exploited in developing special designed racetrack devices with logic AND and NOT, wherein a set of logic AND operations can be realized via skyrmion–skyrmion repulsion between two skyrmions. These results indicate an effective method for tailoring the skyrmion structures and motion behaviors by using inhomogeneous PMA, which further provide a new pathway to all-electric skyrmion-based memory and logic devices.
Metal−organic frameworks (MOFs) are a novel class of porous hybrid organic−inorganic materials that have attracted increasing attention over the past decade. MOFs can be used in chemical engineering, materials science, and chemistry applications. Recently, these structures have been thoroughly studied as promising platforms for biomedical applications. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, they are regarded as promising candidates for disease diagnosis and drug delivery. Their well-defined structure, high porosity, tunable frameworks, wide range of pore shapes, ultrahigh surface area, relatively low toxicity, and easy chemical functionalization have made them the focus of extensive research. This review highlights the up-to-date progress of MOFs as potential platforms for disease diagnosis and drug delivery for a wide range of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, and ocular diseases. A brief description of the synthesis methods of MOFs is first presented. Various examples of MOF-based sensors and DDSs are introduced for the different diseases. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are discussed to provide context for the future development of MOFs as efficient platforms for disease diagnosis and drug delivery systems.
Hybrid nanostructures have a great potential to improve the overall properties of photonic devices. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were infiltrated into nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) layers, aiming at enhancing the optoelectronic performance of Si-based devices. More specifically, Schottky diodes with three different configurations were fabricated, using Al/Si/Au as the basic structure. This structure was modified by adding PSi and PSi + AgNPs layers. Their characteristic electrical parameters were accurately determined by fitting the current–voltage curves to the non-ideal diode equation. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the electrical parameters of the diodes in a wide frequency range by fitting the Nyquist plots to the appropriate equivalent circuit model. The experimental results show a remarkable enhancement in electrical conduction after the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles. Moreover, the spectral photoresponse was examined for various devices. An approximately 10-fold increment in photoresponse was observed after the addition of Ag nanoparticles to the porous structures.
Colloidal suspensions of regular fluids and nanoparticles are known as nanofluids. They have a variety of applications in the medical field, including cell separation, drug targeting, destruction of tumor tissue, and so on. On the other hand, the dispersion of multiple nanoparticles into a regular fluid is referred to as a hybrid nanofluid. It has a variety of innovative applications such as microfluidics, heat dissipation, dynamic sealing, damping, and so on. Because of these numerous applications of nanofluids in minds, therefore, the objective of the current exploration divulged the axisymmetric radiative flow and heat transfer induced by hybrid nanofluid impinging on a porous stretchable/shrinkable rotating disc. In addition, the impact of Smoluchowski temperature and Maxwell velocity slip boundary conditions are also invoked. The hybrid nanofluid was formed by mixing the copper (Cu) and alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles scattered in the regular (viscous) base fluid (H2O). Similarity variables are used to procure the similarity equations, and the numerical outcomes are achieved using bvp4c in MATLAB software. According to the findings, double solutions are feasible for stretching (λ>0) and shrinking cases (λ<0). The heat transfer rate is accelerated as the hybrid nanoparticles increases. The suction parameter enhances the friction factors as well as heat transfer rate. Moreover, the friction factor in the radial direction and heat transfer enrich for the first solution and moderate for the second outcome due to the augmentation δ1, while the trend of the friction factor in the radial direction is changed only in the case of stretching for both branches.
The human epidermis has a characteristic lipidic composition in the stratum corneum, where ceramides play a crucial role in the skin barrier homeostasis and in water-holding capacity. Several skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, exhibit a dysfunction in the lipid barrier with altered ceramide levels and increased loss of transepidermal water. Glucocorticoids are normally employed in the therapeutical management of these pathologies. However, they have shown a poor safety profile and reduced treatment efficiency. The main objective of this review is to, within the framework of the limitations of the currently available therapeutical approaches, establish the relevance of nanocarriers as a safe and efficient delivery strategy for glucocorticoids and ceramides in the topical treatment of skin disorders with barrier impairment.
The quantum quasi-docking procedure is used to compare the docking accuracies of two quantum-chemical semiempirical methods, namely, PM6-D3H4X and PM7. Quantum quasi-docking is an approximation to quantum docking. In quantum docking, it is necessary to search directly for the global minimum of the energy of the protein-ligand complex calculated by the quantum-chemical method. In quantum quasi-docking, firstly, we look for a wide spectrum of low-energy minima, calculated using the MMFF94 force field, and secondly, we recalculate the energies of all these minima using the quantum-chemical method, and among these recalculated energies we determine the lowest energy and the corresponding ligand position. Both PM6-D3H4X and PM7 are novel methods that describe well-dispersion interactions, hydrogen and halogen bonds. The PM6-D3H4X and PM7 methods are used with the COSMO implicit solvent model as it is implemented in the MOPAC program. The comparison is made for 25 high quality protein-ligand complexes. Firstly, the docking positioning accuracies have been compared, and we demonstrated that PM7+COSMO provides better positioning accuracy than PM6-D3H4X. Secondly, we found that PM7+COSMO demonstrates a much higher correlation between the calculated and measured protein–ligand binding enthalpies than PM6-D3H4X. For future quantum docking PM7+COSMO is preferable, but the COSMO model must be improved.
A new gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) based supercapacitor with an ionic conductivity up to 0.32–0.94 mS cm−2 has been synthesized from a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) with nanocellulose (NC). The new NC-ionogel was prepared by combining the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate (EMIMP) with carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibers (CNFc) at different ratios (CNFc ratio from 1 to 4). The addition of CNFc improved the ionogel properties to become easily printable onto the electrode surface. The new GPE based supercapacitor cell showed good electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 160 F g−1 and an equivalent series resistance (ESR) of 10.2 Ω cm−2 at a current density of 1 mA cm−2. The accessibility to the full capacitance of the device is demonstrated after the addition of CNFc in EMIMP compared to the pristine EMIMP (99 F g−1 and 14.7 Ω cm−2).
The shuttling effect of polysulfides is one of the major problems of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries, which causes rapid capacity fading during cycling. Modification of the commercial separator with a functional interlayer is an effective strategy to address this issue. Herein, we modified the commercial Celgard separator of Li–S batteries with one-dimensional (1D) covalent triazine framework (CTF) and a carbon nanotube (CNT) composite as a functional interlayer. The intertwined CTF/CNT can provide a fast lithium ionic/electronic transport pathway and strong adsorption capability towards polysulfides. The Li–S batteries with the CTF/CNT/Celgard separator delivered a high initial capacity of 1314 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and remained at 684 mAh g−1 after 400 cycles−1 at 1 C. Theoretical calculation and static-adsorption experiments indicated that the triazine ring in the CTF skeleton possessed strong adsorption capability towards polysulfides. The work described here demonstrates the potential for CTF-based permselective membranes as separators in Li–S batteries.
The synthesis and characterization of multicolor light-emitting nanomaterials based on rare earths (RE3+) are of great importance due to their possible use in optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs or displays. In the present work, oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals co-doped with Tb3+, Eu3+ ions were fabricated from amorphous xerogels at 350 °C. The analysis of the thermal behavior of fabricated xerogels was performed using TG/DSC measurements (thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)). The crystallization of BaF2 phase at the nanoscale was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the changes in silicate sol–gel host were determined by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The luminescent characterization of prepared sol–gel materials was carried out by excitation and emission spectra along with decay analysis from the 5D4 level of Tb3+. As a result, the visible light according to the electronic transitions of Tb3+ (5D4 → 7FJ (J = 6–3)) and Eu3+ (5D0 → 7FJ (J = 0–4)) was recorded. It was also observed that co-doping with Eu3+ caused the shortening in decay times of the 5D4 state from 1.11 ms to 0.88 ms (for xerogels) and from 6.56 ms to 4.06 ms (for glass-ceramics). Thus, based on lifetime values, the Tb3+/Eu3+ energy transfer (ET) efficiencies were estimated to be almost 21% for xerogels and 38% for nano-glass-ceramics. Therefore, such materials could be successfully predisposed for laser technologies, spectral converters, and three-dimensional displays.