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Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 207
Author(s):  
Toma Fistos ◽  
Irina Fierascu ◽  
Radu Claudiu Fierascu

Cultural heritage (CH) represents human identity and evidence of the existence and activities that people have left over time. In response to the action of aggressive degrading factors, different materials have been developed and used to protect cultural heritage artifacts. The discovery of optimal materials for this purpose also raises several problems, mainly related to their compatibility with the support material, the most important aspect being that they must preserve their aesthetic characteristics. In this context, the present review paper aims to provide a critical discussion about the possibilities of using different inorganic nanomaterials and recipes for the conservation of cultural heritage objects of organic nature (such as paper, wood, and other support materials). In addition, also are covered different aspect concerning protection mechanisms and application methods as well as future perspectives in this area.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 203
Author(s):  
Jordi Sort

“Nanocomposite materials” is one of the main sections of Nanomaterials and it has contributed with more than 440 publications during the last two years to increase the reputation and recognition of the journal by the scientific community [...]


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 206
Author(s):  
Honghwi Park ◽  
Junyeong Lee ◽  
Chang-Ju Lee ◽  
Jaewoon Kang ◽  
Jiyeong Yun ◽  
...  

The electrical properties of polycrystalline graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are determined by grain-related parameters—average grain size, single-crystalline grain sheet resistance, and grain boundary (GB) resistivity. However, extracting these parameters still remains challenging because of the difficulty in observing graphene GBs and decoupling the grain sheet resistance and GB resistivity. In this work, we developed an electrical characterization method that can extract the average grain size, single-crystalline grain sheet resistance, and GB resistivity simultaneously. We observed that the material property, graphene sheet resistance, could depend on the device dimension and developed an analytical resistance model based on the cumulative distribution function of the gamma distribution, explaining the effect of the GB density and distribution in the graphene channel. We applied this model to CVD-grown monolayer graphene by characterizing transmission-line model patterns and simultaneously extracted the average grain size (~5.95 μm), single-crystalline grain sheet resistance (~321 Ω/sq), and GB resistivity (~18.16 kΩ-μm) of the CVD-graphene layer. The extracted values agreed well with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy images of ultraviolet/ozone-treated GBs and the electrical characterization of graphene devices with sub-micrometer channel lengths.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 204
Author(s):  
Zhaoyu Liu ◽  
Dong Yao ◽  
Huiwen Liu ◽  
Hao Zhang

Packing luminescent metal nanoclusters (MNCs) into polymers and fabricating novel MNCs/polymer composite materials is effective in obtaining high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Herein, water soluble Cu and Au nanoclusters are encapsulated in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by a casting method. The obtained MNCs/PVA composite films are highly emissive with triple primary colors, and inherit the merits of PVA, such as transparency, flexibility, machinability, stability and self-healing ability. By employing the MNCs/PVA composite films as down-conversions, remote type monochromic and white LEDs are fabricated. The white LEDs (WLEDs) exhibit a maximum color rendering index (CRI) of 86 with a Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) color coordinate of (0.33,0.35). By varying the three MNCs/PVA film arrangement, the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the WLEDs is tuned from 5582 to 9490 K, which signifies the possibility of MNCs/PVA as alternative light-emitting materials for advanced illumination and display in the future.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 202
Author(s):  
Miranda Martinez ◽  
Anil R. Chourasia

The Ti/SnO2 interface has been investigated in situ via the technique of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thin films (in the range from 0.3 to 1.1 nm) of titanium were deposited on SnO2 substrates via the e-beam technique. The deposition was carried out at two different substrate temperatures, namely room temperature and 200 °C. The photoelectron spectra of tin and titanium in the samples were found to exhibit significant differences upon comparison with the corresponding elemental and the oxide spectra. These changes result from chemical interaction between SnO2 and the titanium overlayer at the interface. The SnO2 was observed to be reduced to elemental tin while the titanium overlayer was observed to become oxidized. Complete reduction of SnO2 to elemental tin did not occur even for the lowest thickness of the titanium overlayer. The interfaces in both the types of the samples were observed to consist of elemental Sn, SnO2, elemental titanium, TiO2, and Ti-suboxide. The relative percentages of the constituents at the interface have been estimated by curve fitting the spectral data with the corresponding elemental and the oxide spectra. In the 200 °C samples, thermal diffusion of the titanium overlayer was observed. This resulted in the complete oxidation of the titanium overlayer to TiO2 upto a thickness of 0.9 nm of the overlayer. Elemental titanium resulting from the unreacted overlayer was observed to be more in the room temperature samples. The room temperature samples showed variation around 20% for the Ti-suboxide while an increasing trend was observed in the 200 °C samples.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 205
Author(s):  
María Salvador ◽  
José Luis Marqués-Fernández ◽  
José Carlos Martínez-García ◽  
Dino Fiorani ◽  
Paolo Arosio ◽  
...  

Today, public health is one of the most important challenges in society. Cancer is the leading cause of death, so early diagnosis and localized treatments that minimize side effects are a priority. Magnetic nanoparticles have shown great potential as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, detection tags for in vitro biosensing, and mediators of heating in magnetic hyperthermia. One of the critical characteristics of nanoparticles to adjust to the biomedical needs of each application is their polymeric coating. Fatty acid coatings are known to contribute to colloidal stability and good surface crystalline quality. While monolayer coatings make the particles hydrophobic, a fatty acid double-layer renders them hydrophilic, and therefore suitable for use in body fluids. In addition, they provide the particles with functional chemical groups that allow their bioconjugation. This work analyzes three types of self-assembled bilayer fatty acid coatings of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: oleic, lauric, and myristic acids. We characterize the particles magnetically and structurally and study their potential for resonance imaging, magnetic hyperthermia, and labeling for biosensing in lateral flow immunoassays. We found that the myristic acid sample reported a large r2 relaxivity, superior to existing iron-based commercial agents. For magnetic hyperthermia, a significant specific absorption rate value was obtained for the oleic sample. Finally, the lauric acid sample showed promising results for nanolabeling.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 191
Author(s):  
Rashmi Niranjan ◽  
Saad Zafar ◽  
Bimlesh Lochab ◽  
Richa Priyadarshini

Resistance to antimicrobial agents in Gram-positive bacteria has become a major concern in the last decade. Recently, nanoparticles (NP) have emerged as a potential solution to antibiotic resistance. We synthesized three reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles, namely rGO, rGO-S, and rGO-S/Se, and characterized them using X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed spherical shape nanometer size S and S/Se NPs on the rGO surface. Antibacterial properties of all three nanomaterials were probed against Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, using turbidometeric and CFU assays. Among the synthesized nanomaterials, rGO-S/Se exhibited relatively strong antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive microorganism tested in a concentration dependent manner (growth inhibition >90% at 200 μg/mL). Atomic force microscopy of rGO-S/Se treated cells displayed morphological aberrations. Our studies also revealed that rGO composite NPs are able to deposit on the bacterial cell surface, resulting in membrane perturbation and oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest a possible three-pronged approach of bacterial cytotoxicity by these graphene-based materials.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 195
Author(s):  
Htet Su Wai ◽  
Chaoyang Li

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide film was deposited on a glass substrate by mist chemical vapor deposition method. The influence of different aluminum doping ratios on the structural and optical properties of zinc oxide film was investigated. The XRD results revealed that the diffraction peak of (101) crystal plane was the dominant peak for the deposited AZO films with the Al doping ratios increasing from 1 wt % to 3 wt %. It was found that the variation of AZO film structures was strongly dependent on the Al/Zn ratios. The intertwined nanosheet structures were obtained when Zn/O ratios were greater than Al/O ratios with the deposition temperature of 400 °C. The optical transmittance of all AZO films was greater than 80% in the visible region. The AZO film deposited with Al doping ratio of 2 wt % showed the highest photocatalytic efficiency between the wavelength of 475 nm and 700 nm, with the high first-order reaction rate of 0.004 min−1 under ultraviolet radiation. The mechanism of the AZO film influenced by aluminum doping ratio during mist chemical vapor deposition process was revealed.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 197
Author(s):  
Wei Du ◽  
Erwang Li ◽  
Runsheng Lin

As an intelligent material, microcapsules can efficiently self-heal internal microcracks and microdefects formed in cement-based materials during service and improve their durability. In this paper, microcapsules of nano-CaCO3/ceresine wax composite shell encapsulated with E-44 epoxy resin were prepared via the melt condensation method. The core content, compactness, particle size distribution, morphologies, chemical structure and micromechanical properties of microcapsules were characterized. The results showed that the encapsulation ability, mechanical properties and compactness of microcapsules were further improved by adding nano-CaCO3 to ceresine wax. The core content, elastic modulus, hardness and weight loss rate (60 days) of nano-CaCO3/ceresine wax composite shell microcapsules (WM2) were 80.6%, 2.02 GPA, 72.54 MPa and 1.6%, respectively. SEM showed that WM2 was regularly spherical with a rough surface and sufficient space inside the microcapsules to store the healing agent. The incorporation of WM2 to mortar can greatly improve the self-healing ability of mortar after pre-damage. After 14 days of self-healing, the compressive strength recovery rate, proportion of harmful pores and chloride ion diffusion coefficient recovery rate increased to 90.1%, 45.54% and 79.8%, respectively. In addition, WM2 also has good self-healing ability for mortar surface cracks, and cracks with initial width of less than 0.35 mm on the mortar surface can completely self-heal within 3 days.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 198
Author(s):  
Guislain Hector ◽  
Jako S. Eensalu ◽  
Atanas Katerski ◽  
Hervé Roussel ◽  
Odette Chaix-Pluchery ◽  
...  

Extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells made of ZnO/TiO2/Sb2S3 core–shell nanowire heterostructures, using P3HT as the hole-transporting material (HTM), are of high interest to surpass solar cell efficiencies of their planar counterpart at lower material cost. However, no dimensional optimization has been addressed in detail, as it raises material and technological critical issues. In this study, the thickness of the Sb2S3 shell grown by chemical spray pyrolysis is tuned from a couple of nanometers to several tens of nanometers, while switching from a partially to a fully crystallized shell. The Sb2S3 shell is highly pure, and the unwanted Sb2O3 phase was not formed. The low end of the thickness is limited by challenges in the crystallization of the Sb2S3 shell, as it is amorphous at nanoscale dimensions, resulting in the low optical absorption of visible photons. In contrast, the high end of the thickness is limited by the increased density of defects in the bulk of the Sb2S3 shell, degrading charge carrier dynamics, and by the incomplete immersion of the P3HT in the structure, resulting in the poor hole collection. The best ETA solar cell with a short-circuit current density of 12.1 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 502 mV, and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 2.83% is obtained for an intermediate thickness of the Sb2S3 shell. These findings highlight that the incorporation of both the absorber shell and HTM in the core–shell heterostructures relies on the spacing between individual nanowires. They further elaborate the intricate nature of the dimensional optimization of an ETA cell, as it requires a fine-balanced holistic approach to correlate all the dimensions of all the components in the heterostructures.


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