mitigation strategies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 327 ◽  
pp. 107850
Baobao Pan ◽  
Longlong Xia ◽  
Shu Kee Lam ◽  
Enli Wang ◽  
Yushu Zhang ◽  

Laiz Souto ◽  
Joshua Yip ◽  
Wen-Ying Wu ◽  
Brent Austgen ◽  
Erhan Kutanoglu ◽  

Structures ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 36 ◽  
pp. 344-357
Ehsan Govahi ◽  
Mojtaba Salkhordeh ◽  
Masoud Mirtaheri

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Serena Ceola ◽  
Alessio Domeneghetti ◽  
Guy J. P. Schumann

River floods are one of the most devastating extreme hydrological events, with oftentimes remarkably negative effects for human society and the environment. Economic losses and social consequences, in terms of affected people and human fatalities, are increasing worldwide due to climate change and urbanization processes. Long-term dynamics of flood risk are intimately driven by the temporal evolution of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Although needed for effective flood risk management, a comprehensive long-term analysis of all these components is not straightforward, mostly due to a lack of hydrological data, exposure information, and large computational resources required for 2-D flood model simulations at adequately high resolution over large spatial scales. This study tries to overcome these limitations and attempts to investigate the dynamics of different flood risk components in the Murray-Darling basin (MDB, Australia) in the period 1973–2014. To this aim, the LISFLOOD-FP model, i.e., a large-scale 2-D hydrodynamic model, and satellite-derived built-up data are employed. Results show that the maximum extension of flooded areas decreases in time, without revealing any significant geographical transfer of inundated areas across the study period. Despite this, a remarkable increment of built-up areas characterizes MDB, with larger annual increments across not-flooded locations compared to flooded areas. When combining flood hazard and exposure, we find that the overall extension of areas exposed to high flood risk more than doubled within the study period, thus highlighting the need for improving flood risk awareness and flood mitigation strategies in the near future.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 140
Muxi Cheng ◽  
Bruce McCarl ◽  
Chengcheng Fei

Globally, the climate is changing, and this has implications for livestock. Climate affects livestock growth rates, milk and egg production, reproductive performance, morbidity, and mortality, along with feed supply. Simultaneously, livestock is a climate change driver, generating 14.5% of total anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Herein, we review the literature addressing climate change and livestock, covering impacts, emissions, adaptation possibilities, and mitigation strategies. While the existing literature principally focuses on ruminants, we extended the scope to include non-ruminants. We found that livestock are affected by climate change and do enhance climate change through emissions but that there are adaptation and mitigation actions that can limit the effects of climate change. We also suggest some research directions and especially find the need for work in developing country settings. In the context of climate change, adaptation measures are pivotal to sustaining the growing demand for livestock products, but often their relevance depends on local conditions. Furthermore, mitigation is key to limiting the future extent of climate change and there are a number of possible strategies.

2022 ◽  
Alex D. Washburne ◽  
Nathaniel Hupert ◽  
Nicole Kogan ◽  
William Hanage ◽  
Mauricio Santillana

Characterizing the dynamics of epidemic trajectories is critical to understanding the potential impacts of emerging outbreaks and to designing appropriate mitigation strategies. As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, however, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern has complicated our ability to assess in real-time the potential effects of imminent outbreaks, such as those presently caused by the Omicron variant. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks across regions exhibit strain-specific times from onset to peak, specifically for Delta and Omicron variants. Our findings may facilitate real-time identification of peak medical demand and may help fine-tune ongoing and future outbreak mitigation deployment efforts.

BMC Nursing ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Sudabeh Ahmadidarrehsima ◽  
Nasibeh Salari ◽  
Neda Dastyar ◽  
Foozieh Rafati

Abstract Background The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is now a major public health emergency in the world. Nurses as key members of the COVID-19 patient care team are exposed to most challenges caused by the disease. As exploring the experiences of nurses as patient supporters and caregivers can play an important role in improving the quality of care for patients with COVID-19 disease, the present study explored the experiences of nurses caring for patients with COVID-19. Methods The study employed a qualitative design. This study employed purposive sampling to select 10 nurses with bachelors and master’s degrees in nursing who were taking care of patients with COVID-19 in ICUs or inpatient wards in southern Iran. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis procedure proposed by Graneheim and Lundman. Results The analysis of the data revealed four main themes and ten sub-themes: A) physical, psychological, and social burden of care (excessive workload; fear, anxiety, worry; unpleasant social experiences; compassion fatigue) B) unmet needs (personal needs and professional needs) C) positive experiences (pleasant social experiences and inner satisfaction), and D) strategies (problem-solving strategies and stress symptom mitigation strategies). Conclusions An analysis of the themes and subthemes extracted in this study suggested that the nurses who participated in this study faced many personal and professional challenges. Therefore, health officials and specialists need to pay special attention to nurses’ challenges and needs.

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