Mitigation Strategies
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Khayriyyah Mohd Hanafiah ◽  
Aini Hasanah Abd Mutalib ◽  
Priscillia Miard ◽  
Chun Sheng Goh ◽  
Shahrul Anuar Mohd Sah ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Julián Esteban Rivera ◽  
Julian Chará

Cattle production systems are an important source of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted to the atmosphere. Animal manure and managed soils are the most important sources of emissions from livestock after enteric methane. It is estimated that the N2O and CH4 produced in grasslands and manure management systems can contribute up to 25% of the emissions generated at the farm level, and therefore it is important to identify strategies to reduce the fluxes of these gases, especially in grazing systems where mitigation strategies have received less attention. This review describes the main factors that affect the emission of GHG from manure in bovine systems and the main strategies for their mitigation with emphasis on grazing production systems. The emissions of N2O and CH4 are highly variable and depend on multiple factors, which makes it difficult to use strategies that mitigate both gases simultaneously. We found that strategies such as the optimization of the diet, the implementation of silvopastoral systems and other practices with the capacity to improve soil quality and cover, and the use of nitrogen fixing plants are among the practices with more potential to reduce emissions from manure and at the same time contribute to increase carbon capture and improve food production. These strategies can be implemented to reduce the emissions of both gases and, depending on the method used and the production system, the reductions can reach up to 50% of CH4 or N2O emissions from manure according to different studies. However, many research gaps should be addressed in order to obtain such reductions at a larger scale.

2021 ◽  
Heather Sharpe ◽  
Melissa Potestio ◽  
Andrew Cave ◽  
David Johnson ◽  
Shannon D. Scott

Abstract ObjectiveThe Primary Care Asthma Paediatric Pathway (PCAPP) included an EMR embedded pathway that provided an evidence-based approach to paediatric asthma management. The aim of this qualitative study was to use a theory-based approach to understand the facilitators and barriers that impacted the implementation of the PCAPP in primary care.Methodsa randomized cluster-controlled design was implemented in 22 primary care practices in Alberta, Canada with half receiving the PCAPP intervention and the other half receiving usual care. Following the implementation of the complex intervention, a purposeful sample of intervention sites were selected to participate in qualitative focus groups to assess the barriers and facilitators to the implementation.ResultsOur qualitative findings are organized into three themes using the core constructs of the normalization process theory (NPT): (1) facilitators of implementation, (2) barriers to implementation, and (3) proposed mitigation strategies. Participants were positive about the pathway, and felt it served as a reminder of optimal paediatric guideline-based asthma management, a streamlined pathway multi-faceted approach to suggest evidence-based care, and an EMR-based targeted collection of tools and resources. Barriers included a generally low priority for the primary care teams, and, in accordance, clinicians suggested they had few children with asthma in their practices. The pathway was not integrated into clinic flow and there was not a specific process to ensure the pathway was used. Sites without project champions also struggled more with implementation. Despite these barriers, clinicians identified clear mitigation strategies to improve uptake including developing a reminder system within the EMR and creating a work-flow that incorporated the pathway.ConclusionOur study demonstrated the applicability of the NPT in the implementation of an evidence-based pathway for primary care. This study demonstrated it is important to ensure teams participate in enrolment (establishing buy-in), legitimization (ensuring teams see their role in the pathway) and activation (an ongoing plan for sustainability). Had these components of cognitive participation been addressed more carefully prior to implementation there may have been greater uptake, and ongoing use of the pathway. Trial Registration: This study was registered at on June 25, 2015; the registration number is: NCT02481037,

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Carol Bogezi ◽  
Lily M. van Eeden ◽  
Aaron J. Wirsing ◽  
John M. Marzluff

Potential impacts to rural livelihoods by large carnivores, such as gray wolves (Canis lupus), increase economic liability and fear among residents, resulting in social conflicts over wildlife issues. Strategies have been developed to promote non-lethal predator management in rural communities, but there is limited understanding of why ranchers choose to participate in such programs. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 45) of ranchers in Washington state, United States, asking open-ended questions to explore their perspectives on conflict mitigation. Interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Ranchers mentioned five broad types of mitigation strategies: state agency intervention (i.e., calling the state agency in charge of wolf management to request either compensation or lethal wolf removal), biological measures (e.g., use of guard animals), physical measures (e.g., fences), human interference (cowboys and cowgirls), and indirect measures (e.g., husbandry practices). Motivations for participating in non-lethal mitigation strategies included previous positive interactions with wildlife agency officials, an understanding of the importance of wolves to the ecosystem, and clearly outlined guidelines on how to deal with wolf interactions. Barriers that hindered rancher participation included disdain for regulation both regarding the Endangered Species Act and the state's requirements for accessing damage compensation, which were perceived to be extensive and over-reaching. Negative attitudes toward wolf recovery included fear of wolves and perceived damage that wolves inflict on rural lives and livelihoods. Ranchers' motivations and perceived barriers for participating in mitigation strategies included sociopolitical and economic factors. Thus, we suggest that in addition to mitigating economic loss, wildlife managers address the intangible social costs that deter ranchers' participation in mitigation strategies through continued dialogue.

2021 ◽  
Ji-Myong Kim ◽  
Sang-Guk Yum ◽  
Hyunsoung Park ◽  
Junseo Bae

Abstract. Due to gradual increases in the frequency and severity of natural disasters, risks to human life and property from natural disasters are exploding. To reduce these risks, various risk mitigation activities have been widely conducted. Risk mitigation activities are becoming more and more important for economic analysis of risk mitigation effects due to limited public budget and the need for economic development. To respond to this urgent need, this study aims to develop a strategic evaluation framework for natural disaster risk mitigation strategies. The proposed framework predicts natural disaster losses using a deep learning algorithm (stage I) and introduces a new methodology that quantifies the effect of natural disaster reduction projects adopting cost-benefit analysis (stage II). To achieve the main objectives of this study, data of insured loss amounts due to natural disasters associated with the identified risk indicators were collected and trained to develop the deep learning model. The robustness of the developed model was then scientifically validated. To demonstrate the proposed quantification methodology, reservoir maintenance projects affected by floods in South Korea were adopted. The results and main findings of this study can be used as valuable guidelines to establish natural disaster mitigation strategies. This study will help practitioners quantify the loss from natural disasters and thus evaluate the effectiveness of risk reduction projects. This study will also assist decision-makers to improve the effectiveness of risk mitigation activities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 258
Luca Foschini ◽  
Valentina Mignardi ◽  
Rebecca Montanari ◽  
Domenico Scotece

Real-time business practices require huge amounts of data directly from the production assets. This new thirst for accurate and timely data has forced the convergence of the traditionally business-focused information technology (IT) environment with the production-focused operational technology (OT). Recently, software-defined network (SDN) methodologies have benefitted OT networks with enhanced situational awareness, centralized configuration, deny-by-default forwarding rules, and increased performance. What makes SDNs so innovative is the separation between the control plane and the data plane, centralizing the command in the controllers. However, due to their young age, the use of SDNs in the industry context has not yet matured comprehensive SDN-based architectures for IT/OT networks, which are also resistant to security attacks such as denial-of-service ones, which may occur in SDN-based industrial IoT (IIoT) networks. One main motivation is that the lack of comprehensive SDN-based architectures for IT/OT networks making it difficult to effectively simulate, analyze, and identify proper detection and mitigation strategies for DoS attacks in IT/OT networks. No consolidated security solutions are available that provide DoS detection and mitigation strategies in IT/OT networks. Along this direction, this paper’s contributions are twofold. On the one hand, this paper proposes a convergent IT/OT SDN-based architecture applied in a real implementation of an IT/OT support infrastructure called SIRDAM4.0 within the context of the SBDIOI40 project. On the other hand, this paper proposes a qualitative analysis on how this architecture works under DoS attacks, focusing on what the specific problems and vulnerabilities are. In particular, we simulated several distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack scenarios within the context of the proposed architecture to show the minimum effort needed by the attacker to hack the network, and our obtained experimental results show how it is possible to compromise the network, thus considerably worsening the performance and, in general, the functioning of the network. Finally, we conclude our analysis with a brief description on the importance of employing machine learning approaches for attack detection and for mitigation techniques.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 195-195
Alan Rotz

Abstract The dairy and beef cattle industries face a number of environmental challenges related to air and water quality as well as the use of limited resources such as water and fossil energy. Mitigation strategies are available and being developed to reduce environmental impacts, but economical solutions remain a challenge. Assessment of mitigation strategies requires a comprehensive evaluation to assure that benefits in one component are not offset by harm in another. Process-based modeling and life cycle assessment provide tools for conducting this type of integrated evaluation. The most cost-effective strategies often begin with animal feeding. The diet of the animal affects resource use and nutrient excretion where the amount and form of nitrogen and phosphorus excreted affect air and water emissions. National assessments of the U.S. beef and dairy industries indicate where mitigation is most needed. Although greenhouse gas emissions receive most of the concern today, water consumption is another important concern, particularly for producers in drier regions such as the western United States. Over 90% of the water consumed in beef and dairy production is used in irrigated feed-crop production. Therefore, animal diets that use byproduct or other feeds not related to irrigated production can provide large reductions in the water footprint of beef and dairy products. Another emerging concern is that of ammonia emission where beef and dairy cattle may contribute more than half of the national emission inventory. Efficient protein feeding is the most economical and effective step that can be taken to reduce this environmental impact. Simulation of mitigation strategies using production system models provides comprehensive evaluation and prioritization among available and possible options, giving direction toward more sustainable ruminant animal production systems.

L. Chalupowicz ◽  
S. Manulis-Sasson ◽  
I. Barash ◽  
Y. Elad ◽  
D. Rav-David ◽  

Mitigation strategies to prevent microbial contamination of crops are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that induction of plant systemic resistance by biological (ISR) and chemical (SAR) elicitors reduces endophytic colonization of leaves by Salmonella enterica serovars Senftenberg and Typhimurium. S . Senftenberg had greater endophytic fitness than S . Typhimurium in basil and lettuce. The apoplastic population sizes of serovars Senftenberg and Typhimurium in basil and lettuce, respectively, were significantly reduced approximately 10- to 100-fold by root treatment with microbial inducers of systemic resistance compared with the H 2 O treatment. Rhodotorula glutinis effected the lowest population increase of S . Typhimurium in lettuce (120-fold) and S . Senftenberg in basil leaves (60-fold) compared with the H 2 O treatment over 10 days post-inoculation. Trichoderma harzianum and Pichia guilliermondii did not have any significant effect on S . Senftenberg in the basil apoplast. The chemical elicitors acidobenzolar-S-methyl and DL-β-amino-butyric acid inhibited S . Typhimurium multiplication in the lettuce apoplast 10- and 2-fold, respectively, compared with H 2 O-treated plants. All ISR and SAR inducers applied to lettuce roots in this study increased leaf expression of the defense gene PR1 , as did Salmonella apoplastic colonization in H 2 O-treated lettuce plants. Remarkably, both acidobenzolar-S-methyl- and R. glutinis -upregulation of PR1 was repressed by the presence of Salmonella in the leaves. However, enhanced PR1 expression was sustained longer and at greater levels upon elicitor treatment than by Salmonella induction alone. These results serve as proof of concept that priming of plant immunity may provide an intrinsic hurdle against the endophytic establishment of enteric pathogens in leafy vegetables. Importance Fruit and vegetables consumed raw have become an important vehicle of foodborne illness despite a continuous effort to improve their microbial safety. Salmonella enterica has caused numerous recalls and outbreaks of infection associated with contaminated leafy vegetables. Evidence is increasing that enteric pathogens can reach the leaf apoplast where they confront plant innate immunity. Plants may be triggered for induction of their defense signaling pathways by exposure to chemical or microbial elicitors. This priming for recognition of microbes by plant defense pathways has been used to inhibit plant pathogens and limit disease. Given that current mitigation strategies are insufficient in preventing microbial contamination of produce and associated outbreaks, we investigated the effect of plant induced resistance on S. enterica colonization of the lettuce and basil leaf apoplast in order to gain a proof of concept for the use of such an intrinsic approach to inhibit human pathogens in leafy vegetables.

Tony Walker

Threats emerging from microplastics pollution in the marine environment have received much global attention. This review assessed sources, fate, and impacts of microplastics in marine ecosystems and identified gaps. Most studies document ubiquity of microplastics and associated environmental effects. Effects include impacts to marine ecosystems, risks to biodiversity, and threats to human health. Microplastic leakage into marine ecosystems arises from plastic waste mismanagement and a lack of effective mitigative strategies. This review identified a scarcity of microplastics mitigation strategies across different stakeholders. Lack of community involvement in microplastic monitoring or ecosystem conservation exists due to limited existence of stakeholder co-management initiatives. Although some management strategies exist for controlling the effects of microplastics (often implemented by local and global environmental groups); a standardized management strategy to mitigate microplastics in coastal areas is urgently required. There is a need to identify focal causes of microplastic pollution in the marine environment through further environmental research. This would extend to creating more effective policies as well as harmonized and extended efforts of educational campaigns and incentives for counteraction and plastic waste reduction, while mandating stringent penalties for polluting the marine environment. This will help reduce microplastic leakage into the environment.

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