Economic Losses
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260172
Shawky M. Aboelhadid ◽  
Waleed M. Arafa ◽  
Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki ◽  
Atalay Sokmen ◽  
Saleh Al-Quraishy ◽  

Globally, the economic losses due to hard ticks infestation and the control of the associated diseases have been calculated at USD $13.9–18.7 billion per year. The economic impact is related to its direct damage to the skins, blood loss, anemia, severe immunological reactions and indirect losses that related to the effects of hemoparasites, cost of treatment for clinical cases and expenses incurred in the control of ticks. The current study evaluated the acaricidal activities of fennel Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and its main components; trans-anethole and fenchone; against R. annulatus. GC–MS analysis revealed that this oil contained 16 components representing 99.9% of the total identified compounds with E-anethole being the predominant component(64.29%), followed by fenchone (9.94%). The fennel oil and trans-anethole showed significant acaricidal activities. The LC50 of the fennel oil was attained at concentrations of 12.96% for adult ticks and 1.75% for tick larvae meanwhile the LC50 of trans-anethole was reached at concentrations of 2.36% for adult tick and 0.56% for tick larvae. On the contrary, fenchone showed no any significant adulticidal activities and its LC50 attained at a concentration of 9.11% for tick larvae. Regarding repellence activities, trans-anethole achieved 100% repellency at the concentration of 10% while fennel showed 86% repellency at the same concentration. Fenchone showed no repellency effect. Treatment of larvae with fennel, trans-anethole, and fenchone LC50 concentrations significantly inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity. Meanwhile, glutathione s-transferase activity was significantly decreased in fennel treated larvae but no significant effect was found in the larvae of trans-anethole and fenchone groups. These results indicate that the acaricide effect of fennel oil may attributed to its high content of trans-anethole. This was supported by potent adulticidal, larvicidal, and repellency effects of trans-anethole against Rhipeciphalus annulatus tick and therefore it could be included in the list of acaricide of plant origin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (23) ◽  
pp. 11399
Miroslav Pástor ◽  
Pavol Lengvarský ◽  
Martin Hagara ◽  
Alžbeta Sapietová ◽  
Patrik Šarga

Preloaded bolted connections are one of the most used approaches for anchoring steel structures and equipment. Preload is induced by a mechanical tightening of the nut with the required torque. In the case of anchor bolts embedded in a concrete base, the prescribed tightening procedure has to be followed for safe and reliable operation. The present paper addresses the problem of anchoring a new casting pedestal using the original anchor bolts. The aim was to verify the original anchoring system’s reliable and safe operation, taking into account the current condition of the bolts. The analysed anchoring bolts are subjected to cyclic (disappearing) stress during the rotation of the casting pedestal. If the interplays between the anchor bolt and the concrete foundation were damaged, production would shut down, resulting in high economic losses. For this reason, the authors used a modified nut with a lightened first thread when investigating the actual state of the anchoring and setting the required preload. The shape and dimensions of the nut were determined based on the results of numerical modelling. The experimental measurements consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the values of axial forces in the anchor bolts at the required preload were set using the designed dynamometers. The second phase was focused on the operational measurements. The methodology of measuring the axial forces and the interpretation of the results obtained, including a comprehensive view of the anchoring safety, provides relevant evidence of the functionality and effectiveness of the proposed solution. Based on the results of the operational measurement and the prescribed handling of the casting pedestal, the lifespan of the anchoring was determined to be 3650 days under the loading cycles to date.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Duowei Li ◽  
Jianping Wu ◽  
Depin Peng

Traffic accident management as an approach to improve public security and reduce economic losses has received public attention for a long time, among which traffic accidents post-impact prediction (TAPIP) is one of the most important procedures. However, existing systems and methodologies for TAPIP are insufficient for addressing the problem. The drawbacks include ignoring the recovery process after clearance and failing to make comprehensive prediction in both time and space domain. To this end, we build a 3-stage TAPIP model on highways, using the technology of spiking neural networks (SNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). By dividing the accident lifetime into two phases, i.e., clean-up phase and recovery phase, the model extracts characteristics in each phase and achieves prediction of spatial-temporal post-impact variables (e.g., clean-up time, recovery time, and accumulative queue length). The framework takes advantage of SNNs to efficiently capture accident spatial-temporal features and CNNs to precisely represent the traffic environment. Integrated with an adaptation and updating mechanism, the whole system works autonomously in an online manner that continues to self-improve during usage. By testing with a new dataset CASTA pertaining to California statewide traffic accidents on highways collected in four years, we prove that the proposed model achieves higher prediction accuracy than other methods (e.g., KNN, shockwave theory, and ANNs). This work is the introduction of SNNs in the traffic accident prediction domain and also a complete description of post-impact in the whole accident lifetime.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Yanhui Chen ◽  
Ruth Afumba ◽  
Fusheng Pang ◽  
Rongxin Yuan ◽  
Hao Dong

Abstract Derzsy’s disease and Muscovy duck parvovirus disease have become common diseases in waterfowl culture in the world and their potential to cause harm has risen. The causative agents are goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV), which can provoke similar clinical symptoms and high mortality and morbidity rates. In recent years, duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome has been prevalent in the Cherry Valley duck population in eastern China. It is characterised by the physical signs for which it is named. Although the mortality rate is low, it causes stunting and weight loss, which have caused serious economic losses to the waterfowl industry. The virus that causes this disease was named novel goose parvovirus (NGPV). This article summarises the latest research on the genetic relationships of the three parvoviruses, and reviews the aetiology, epidemiology, and necropsy characteristics in infected ducks, in order to facilitate further study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
L. Kiely ◽  
D. V. Spracklen ◽  
S. R. Arnold ◽  
E. Papargyropoulou ◽  
L. Conibear ◽  

AbstractDeforestation and drainage has made Indonesian peatlands susceptible to burning. Large fires occur regularly, destroying agricultural crops and forest, emitting large amounts of CO2 and air pollutants, resulting in adverse health effects. In order to reduce fire, the Indonesian government has committed to restore 2.49 Mha of degraded peatland, with an estimated cost of US$3.2-7 billion. Here we combine fire emissions and land cover data to estimate the 2015 fires, the largest in recent years, resulted in economic losses totalling US$28 billion, whilst the six largest fire events between 2004 and 2015 caused a total of US$93.9 billion in economic losses. We estimate that if restoration had already been completed, the area burned in 2015 would have been reduced by 6%, reducing CO2 emissions by 18%, and PM2.5 emissions by 24%, preventing 12,000 premature mortalities. Peatland restoration could have resulted in economic savings of US$8.4 billion for 2004–2015, making it a cost-effective strategy for reducing the impacts of peatland fires to the environment, climate and human health.

2021 ◽  
Yingtong Feng ◽  
Xuyang Guo ◽  
Hong Tian ◽  
Yuan He ◽  
Yang Li ◽  

Type I interferons (IFN-I) play a key role in the host defense against virus infection, but porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection does not effectively activate IFN-I response, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly characterized. In this study, a novel transcription factor of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene, homeobox A3 (HOXA3), was screened and identified. Here, we found that HOXA3 was significantly increased during PRRSV infection. We demonstrated that HOXA3 promotes PRRSV replication by negatively regulating the HO-1 gene transcription, which is achieved by regulating type I interferons (IFN-I) production. A detailed analysis showed that PRRSV exploits HOXA3 to suppress beta interferon (IFN-β) and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in host cells. We also provide direct evidence that the activation of IFN-I by HO-1 depends on its interaction with IRF3. Then we further proved that deficiency of HOXA3 promoted the HO-1-IRF3 interaction, and subsequently enhanced IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in PRRSV-infected cells. These data suggest that PRRSV uses HOXA3 to negatively regulate the transcription of the HO-1 gene to suppress the IFN-I response for immune evasion. IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by PRRSV, leads the pork industry worldwide to significant economic losses. HOXA3 is generally considered to be an important molecule in the process of body development and cell differentiation. Here, we found a novel transcription factor of the HO-1 gene, HOXA3, can negatively regulate the transcription of the HO-1 gene and play an important role in the suppression of IFN-I response by PRRSV. PRRSV induces the upregulation of HOXA3, which can negatively regulate HO-1 gene transcription, thereby weakening the interaction between HO-1 and IRF3 for inhibiting the type I IFN response. This study extends the function of HOXA3 to the virus field for the first time and provides new insights into PRRSV immune evasion mechanism.

2021 ◽  
pp. 81-88
Y. N. Maksimov ◽  
D. Kh. Khaibullina

Back and neck pain is widespread in the population. Preferably, patients of working age are sick, which leads to serious economic losses. The transition of pain from acute to chronic increases financial costs, so effective treatment of back pain is an important medical, social and economic problem. Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) prevails among all types of back pain. The source of the MSP can be various structures of the musculoskeletal system: bones, joints, muscles, fascia, tendons, ligaments, intervertebral discs. The provoking factors for the development of the MSP are static and dynamic overloads arising from physical work, long stay in a fixed posture, unprepared movements, hypothermia, vibrations. The leading diagnostic method for the MSP is a physical research of a patient which includes a detailed collection of complaints and anamnesis, inspection in statics and dynamics, carrying out global and special tests, neuroorthopedic and neurological research. In most cases, the analysis of the results obtained allows you to set a clinical diagnosis without appointing additional research methods. Two cases of acute MSP with different localization, clinical manifestations and flow are offered to the discussion. In the first case, the process was localized in the muscles of the law back. In the second patient, the muscular tonic syndrome developed in the muscles of the neck and shoulder belt and was supported by functional blockades of the vertebral motor segments. For the treatment of both patients, NSAID, muscle relaxant, glucocorticoid, as well as non-drug therapy methods were used. For local injection therapy, a drug group of glucocorticoids was used, having a sodium phosphate and betamethazone dipropionate as part of the sodium betamethasone. The combination of two betamethazone salts provides both the rapid and prolonged effect of the drug, which makes it reasonable to use it with acute musculoskeletal pain.

Felipe Mendes Zorzi ◽  
Luiz Francisco Zafalon ◽  
Franklin Bispo Santos ◽  
Arthur Ferreira Borges ◽  
Ticiano Gomes Nascimento ◽  

Fifty-two Staphylococcus aureus recovered from papillary ostium and milk samples collected from cows with subclinical mastitis and milking environments in three small dairy herds located in southeastern Brazil were subjected to PCR identification based on the thermonuclease (nuc) gene. All the strains were submitted to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and we investigated the sequence types (STs), agr groups (I-IV), virulence genes encoding for Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs), biofilm-associated proteins, bi-component toxins, pyrogenic toxin superantigens, and enterotoxins. Screening for oxacillin resistance (2-6 μg/ml oxacillin), beta-lactamase activity assays, and PCR for the mecA/mecC genes detected 26 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 26 mec-independent oxacillin-nonsusceptible S. aureus (MIONSA). While MSSA isolates were found to be susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested, or only resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, MIONSA isolates were multidrug-resistant. ST126-agr group II MSSA isolates were prevalent in milk (n=14) and carried a broad set of virulence genes (clfA, clfB, eno, fnbA, fiB, icaA, icaD, lukED, hla, and hlb), as well as the ST126-agr group II MIONSA isolated from milking liners (n=1), which also carried the eta gene. ST1-agr group III MIONSA isolates (n=4) were found in papillary ostium and milk, but most MIONSA isolates (n=21), which were identified in both papillary ostium and milking liners, were agr-negative and assigned to ST126. The agr-negative and agr group III lineages showed a low potential for virulence. Studies on the characterization of bovine-associated MSSA/MIONSA are essential to reduce S. aureus mastitis to prevent economic losses in dairy production and also to monitor the zoonotic potential of these pathogens associated with invasive infections and treatment failures in healthcare.

Francis Edwardes ◽  
Mariska van der Voort ◽  
Tariq Halasa ◽  
Menno Holzhauer ◽  
Henk Hogeveen

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