This work aimed to characterize, identify, and determine the deteriorating potential of the contaminating psychrotrophic bacteria in refrigerated raw milk. Samples were submitted to serial dilutions and plated in specific culture media to form a bacterial culture collection. The isolates were characterized for their morphology and biochemical characteristics. The deteriorating potential of the isolates was determined according to the proteolytic, lipolytic and lecithinase activities at 4.0 ºC, 6.5 ºC, and 25.0 ºC. The results obtained for deterioration potential were assessed by the multivariate statistical method and by the principal components analysis (PCA). A total of 159 isolates were characterized, and of these, 46 strongly proteolytic Gram-negative isolates were selected for identification using the API 20 NE kit. The predominant bacteria were Gram-negative and oxidase and catalase positive, with a predominance of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Using PCA, it was shown that the bacteria with the greatest deterioration potential were lecithinase producers, and that, in the autumn, proteolytic bacteria predominated at 4.0 ºC. Of the 46 isolates identified, more than 80% belonged to the species Pseudomonas fluorescens. Thus, attention should be given to the importance of implementing microbial contamination prevention measures in the bulking process, since, even under refrigeration, psychrotrophic bacteria multiply and produce enzymes that deteriorate lipids and proteins, with consequent quality losses of the milk and its derivatives, yield losses in the production of dairy products, and economic losses.
Food availability is the most important issue that takes the priority places in the policies of all countries all over the world. Recently, more attention has been paid to livestock because of their ability to produce meat and milk, as well as it has a significant source of income for small holders and an economic contributor to the gross domestic product. Climate changes induced physiological stress, which is one of the complex factors making livestock management and husbandry challenging in many geographical locations in the world. Increased body temperature or heat stress will cause production losses in livestock and impact on their ability to maintain normal function. There is considerable research evidence that showed significant decline in animal performance when subjected to heat stress. Heat stress inflicts heavy economic losses on livestock production. The effects of heat stress is evident in feed consumption, production efficiency in terms of milk yield or weight gain per unit of feed energy, growth rate, and reproductive efficiency. The aim of this article is to discuss increasing food production to ensure food security for nearly 8 billion people, without causing further environmental damage that can be achieved by transforming systems and adopting sustainable livestock practices within a changing climate.
River floods are one of the most devastating extreme hydrological events, with oftentimes remarkably negative effects for human society and the environment. Economic losses and social consequences, in terms of affected people and human fatalities, are increasing worldwide due to climate change and urbanization processes. Long-term dynamics of flood risk are intimately driven by the temporal evolution of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Although needed for effective flood risk management, a comprehensive long-term analysis of all these components is not straightforward, mostly due to a lack of hydrological data, exposure information, and large computational resources required for 2-D flood model simulations at adequately high resolution over large spatial scales. This study tries to overcome these limitations and attempts to investigate the dynamics of different flood risk components in the Murray-Darling basin (MDB, Australia) in the period 1973–2014. To this aim, the LISFLOOD-FP model, i.e., a large-scale 2-D hydrodynamic model, and satellite-derived built-up data are employed. Results show that the maximum extension of flooded areas decreases in time, without revealing any significant geographical transfer of inundated areas across the study period. Despite this, a remarkable increment of built-up areas characterizes MDB, with larger annual increments across not-flooded locations compared to flooded areas. When combining flood hazard and exposure, we find that the overall extension of areas exposed to high flood risk more than doubled within the study period, thus highlighting the need for improving flood risk awareness and flood mitigation strategies in the near future.
Highly pathogenic fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the causative agent of hydropericardium syndrome (HPS), which is characterized by pericardial effusion and hepatitis, and is one of the foremost causes of economic losses to the poultry industry over the last 30 years. However, the metabolic changes in cells in response to FAdV-4 infection remain unclear. In order to understand the metabolic interactions between the host cell and virus, we utilized ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the metabolic profiles with hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (LMH) infected with FAdV-4. The results showed that FAdV-4 could restore metabolic networks in LMH cells and tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, and metabolism of purines, pyrimidines, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and amino sugar and nucleotide sugar moieties. Moreover, FAdV-4 production was significantly reduced in LMH cells cultured in glucose or glutamine-deficient medium. These observations highlighted the importance of host cell metabolism in virus replication. Therefore, similarities and disparities in FAdV-4-regulation of the metabolism of host cells could help improve targeted drug and reduce infection.
Background: Salmonella Pullorum are pathogenic bacteria that causes salmonellosis and causes heavy economic losses in the poultry industry and are zoonotic. Treatment of diseases caused by bacteria generally use antibiotics, but excessive administration of antibiotics causes bacterial resistance and residues in livestock. Major chemical constituents of Sambiloto are andrographolide and flavonoids. Andrographolide has antibacterial effect in addition to being antitoxic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic.
Methods: The research was conducted by isolating and identifying Salmonella Pullorum on SSA media and a series of biochemical tests (TSIA, SIM, SCA, urea media and sugar test), manufacturing sambiloto extract, testing the sensitivity of several antibiotics using the disk diffusion method and testing the activation of sambiloto extract against Salmonella Pullorum using the disk diffusion and dilution methods. Result: The result show that sambiloto had antibacterial activity because it contained andrographolide, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and tannins and the lowest extract dose that effectively killed Salmonella Pullorum is concentrations of 20%.
Phytophthora cinnamomi is the causal agent of root rot, canker and dieback of thousands of plant species around the globe. This oomycete not only causes severe economic losses to forestry and agricultural industries, but also threatens the health of various plants in natural ecosystems. In this study, 380 isolates of P. cinnamomi from four avocado production areas and two regions of natural vegetation in South Africa were investigated using 15 microsatellite markers. These populations were found to have a low level of genetic diversity and consisted of isolates from three lineages. Shared genotypes were detected between isolates from avocado orchards and natural vegetation, indicating the movement of isolates between these areas. The population from the Western Cape natural vegetation had the highest genotypic diversity and unique alleles, indicating this could be the point of introduction of P. cinnamomi to South Africa. Index of association analysis suggested that five out of six populations were under linkage disequilibrium suggesting a clonal mode of reproduction whereas genotypes sampled from a recently established avocado orchard in the Western Cape were derived from a randomly recombined population. This study provided novel insights on the genetic diversity and spread of P. cinnamomi in South Africa. It also reported on the predominance of triploidy in natural occurring populations and provided evidence for recombination of P. cinnamomi for the first time. The presence of two dominant genotypes in all avocado production areas in South Africa highlight the importance of considering them in disease management and resistance breeding programmes.
Consumers associate a bright-cherry red color of beefwith freshness and wholesomeness. Any deviation from a bright red color leadsto a discounted price or beef is discarded. Limited data is currently availableon the economic losses due to retail beef discoloration. Therefore, theobjective of the study was to estimate economic losses, the amount of beefdiscarded, natural resource wastage, and environmental impact due to beefdiscoloration. One-year data of total beef sales, total beef discarded, and discountedsale values were collected from two national retail chains and one retailstore. The two retail chains were located throughout the US, and the one retailstore was located in Southern US. The US beef system life cycle parameters frompublished literature were used to calculate the impact of discarded meat on waterand energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The data from three stores weremodeled to calculate annual loss due to discoloration from the US retail beefsales. The data indicated that total beef sales from two major retail chainsand one retail store was 1.1 billion pounds of steaks and ground beef for theone-year period. This amount of beef corresponds to approximately 6.5% of totalretail sales of steaks and ground beef in the US. The amount of beef discardedfrom two major retail chains and one retail store corresponds to 29.7 millionpounds. Based on modeled data, the amount of beef discarded annually due todiscoloration within the US retail beef industry corresponds to 429 millionpounds, with another 1.8 billion pounds sold at a discount. The results indicatethat the US beef industry losses $3.745 billion annually due to discoloration. Thetotal amount of beef discarded per year in the US corresponds to 429 millionpounds, which represents wasting 780,000 animals and the associated naturalresources used in their production. A 1% decrease in discolored beef in the UScould reduce natural resource waste and environmental impacts by 23.95 billionL in water, 96.88 billion mega Joules in energy consumed, and 0.40 million tonsof carbon dioxide equivalent emission along the beef upstream value chain.Therefore, novel technologies to improve meat color stability could improvebeef production’s sustainability and limit wastage of nutritious beef.
Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BoHV-1) is a widespread pathogen that provokes infectious rhinotracheitis and polymicrobial infections in cattle, resulting in serious economic losses to the farm animal industry and trade restrictions. To date, non-toxic active drugs against BoHV-1 are not available. The exploitation of bioactive properties of microbial products is of great pharmaceutical interest. In fact, fungi are a promising source of novel drugs with a broad spectrum of activities and functions, including antiviral properties. Hence, the potential antiviral properties of 3-O-methylfunicone (OMF), a secondary metabolite produced by Talaromyces pinophilus, were evaluated on BoHV-1. In this study, during BoHV-1 infection in bovine cells (MDBK), the non-toxic concentration of 5 µM OMF considerably reduced signs of cell death and increased cell proliferation. Furthermore, OMF significantly decreased the virus titer as well as the cytopathic effect and strongly inhibited the expression of bICP0, the major regulatory protein in the BoHV-1 lytic cycle. These findings were accompanied by a considerable up-regulation in the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a multifunctional transcription factor also linked to the host’s response to a herpesvirus infection. Overall, our results suggest that by involving AhR, OMF shows potential against a BoHV-1 infection.
Chrysomyxa rusts are fungal pathogens widely distributed in the Northern hemisphere, causing spruce needle and cone rust diseases, and they are responsible for significant economic losses in China. Taxonomic delimitation and precise species identification are difficult within this genus because some characters often overlap in several species. Adequate species delimitation, enhanced by the use of DNA-based methodologies, will help to establish well-supported species boundaries and enable the identification of cryptic species. Here, we explore the cryptic species diversity in the rust genus Chrysomyxa from China. Species delimitation analyses are conducted using a distance-based method (ABGD) and three tree-based methods (GMYC, bPTP, and mPTP) based on combined LSU and ITS sequences of over 60 specimens. Although there is some incongruence among species delimitation methods, two new species and three putative cryptic species are identified. The key to 20 Chrysomyxa species distributed in China is presented. These results suggest that a significant level of undiscovered cryptic diversity is likely to be found in Chrysomyxa from China. Future studies should consider multiple analytical methods when dealing with multi-locus datasets.