egg production
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Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 140
Muxi Cheng ◽  
Bruce McCarl ◽  
Chengcheng Fei

Globally, the climate is changing, and this has implications for livestock. Climate affects livestock growth rates, milk and egg production, reproductive performance, morbidity, and mortality, along with feed supply. Simultaneously, livestock is a climate change driver, generating 14.5% of total anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Herein, we review the literature addressing climate change and livestock, covering impacts, emissions, adaptation possibilities, and mitigation strategies. While the existing literature principally focuses on ruminants, we extended the scope to include non-ruminants. We found that livestock are affected by climate change and do enhance climate change through emissions but that there are adaptation and mitigation actions that can limit the effects of climate change. We also suggest some research directions and especially find the need for work in developing country settings. In the context of climate change, adaptation measures are pivotal to sustaining the growing demand for livestock products, but often their relevance depends on local conditions. Furthermore, mitigation is key to limiting the future extent of climate change and there are a number of possible strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009828
Benjamin J. Hulme ◽  
Kathrin K. Geyer ◽  
Josephine E. Forde-Thomas ◽  
Gilda Padalino ◽  
Dylan W. Phillips ◽  

α-galactosidase (α-GAL) and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGAL) are two glycosyl hydrolases responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating glycan substrates on proteins and lipids. Mutations in the human genes encoding either enzyme lead to neurological and neuromuscular impairments seen in both Fabry- and Schindler/Kanzaki- diseases. Here, we investigate whether the parasitic blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis, also contains functionally important α-GAL and α-NAGAL proteins. As infection, parasite maturation and host interactions are all governed by carefully-regulated glycosylation processes, inhibiting S. mansoni’s α-GAL and α-NAGAL activities could lead to the development of novel chemotherapeutics. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of putative α-GAL/α-NAGAL protein types showed Smp_089290 to be the only S. mansoni protein to contain the functional amino acid residues necessary for α-GAL/α-NAGAL substrate cleavage. Both α-GAL and α-NAGAL enzymatic activities were higher in females compared to males (p<0.05; α-NAGAL > α-GAL), which was consistent with smp_089290’s female biased expression. Spatial localisation of smp_089290 revealed accumulation in parenchymal cells, neuronal cells, and the vitellaria and mature vitellocytes of the adult schistosome. siRNA-mediated knockdown (>90%) of smp_089290 in adult worms significantly inhibited α-NAGAL activity when compared to control worms (siLuc treated males, p<0.01; siLuc treated females, p<0.05). No significant reductions in α-GAL activities were observed in the same extracts. Despite this, decreases in α-NAGAL activities correlated with a significant inhibition in adult worm motility as well as in egg production. Programmed CRISPR/Cas9 editing of smp_089290 in adult worms confirmed the egg reduction phenotype. Based on these results, Smp_089290 was determined to act predominantly as an α-NAGAL (hereafter termed SmNAGAL) in schistosome parasites where it participates in coordinating movement and oviposition processes. Further characterisation of SmNAGAL and other functionally important glycosyl hydrolases may lead to the development of a novel anthelmintic class of compounds.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Cory Penca ◽  
Nicholas C. Goltz ◽  
Amanda C. Hodges ◽  
Norman C. Leppla ◽  
Joseph E. Eger ◽  

The mass rearing of hymenopteran egg parasitoids requires an abundant supply of host eggs. The onset of reproductive diapause and subsequent decline in egg production poses a challenge for parasitoid rearing when using host colonies augmented by field-collected insects. We investigated the application of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog, to induce oviposition in diapausing adult kudzu bugs, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), and the use of eggs produced by pyriproxyfen-treated kudzu bugs to rear the egg parasitoid, Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). The effects of pyriproxyfen and photoperiod treatments on host mortality, egg production, and rates of parasitoid eclosion from the eggs were used to calculate the parasitoid yield for the different treatment regimes. A combination of pyriproxyfen and a long-day photoperiod increased the parasitoid yield by 87% compared to acetone and a long-day photoperiod. The general applicability of JH-analog mediated egg production for parasitoid rearing is discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Mengjiao Guo ◽  
Xiufang Chen ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  
Donghui Liu ◽  
Yantao Wu ◽  

Infectious coryza is an acute infectious respiratory disease in chickens that is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum (A. paragallinarum). Infectious coryza has major economic effects due to decreased egg production in growing birds and slowed growth in broilers. In this study, we isolated and identified 40 strains of A. paragallinarum from chickens that showed typical clinical signs of coryza in part of China from 2019 to 2020. Using a hemagglutination-inhibition test, 11 isolates were identified as serovar A, 10 isolates were identified as serovar B, and 19 isolates were identified as serovar C. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests showed that high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were encountered for compounds sulfamethoxine sodium and oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Especially, of the 40 A. paragallinarum isolates, 30% had an MIC value of compound sulfamethoxine sodium of 64 μg/mL, 10% of 128 μg/mL, and 15% of 256 μg/mL. For oxytetracycline hydrochloride, 85% of isolates showed MIC values of 64 μg/mL or more. Excitingly, the MIC values of β-lactamase (amoxicillin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur) were low, with 77.5%, 70%, and 92.5% of isolates having an MIC value of ≤1 μg/mL, respectively. Our results may provide a reference for the treatment of infectious coryza.

Yu. P. Dyakov

Based on the longterm observations for 1963–2019, the article provides an assessment of the yellowfin sole generation mortality dynamics depending initial abundance and population dynamics in view of abundance and biomass. Individual growth and matiration rates were evaluated in generations with different initial abundance and in different states of population dynamics. Results indicated about intraspecific competition in yellowfin sole in the eastern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, expressed in specifics of the dynamics of stock abundance, growth and maturation. Forming generation stock abundance in early and later ages has different character. The more exceeding number of parental eggs spawned, the more generation abundance of yearlings getting exactly compensated by mortality (complete compensation). Older generations demonstrate the phenomen of “overcompensation”, when mortality of generations appeared in the years of higher egg production exceeds fertility. In the period of population growth and stabilization at a high level the period of the Yellowfin sole abundance fluctuation cycle gets shorter and the amplitude – smaller. Effects of intraspecific competition on the growth of individuals are revealed. Negative effects of the competition authentically revealed in elder age groups were not observed in younger age groups. An increase of the Yellowfin sole abundance brings negative effects on maturation rate of males with almost no such effects on females. To the greatest extent such effects can be seen in young age groups, at the beginning and middle stage of maturation.

LM Mwai ◽  
AM Kingori ◽  
MK Ambula

In Kenya, Mulberry is grown in less than a piece of an acre by most of the farmers. Current acreage of mulberry stands at 250, spread over Western, Nyanza, and Rift Valley and Coastal regions. Mulberry leaves are highly palatable and digestible (70-90%) to ruminants and can be fed to non-ruminants as part of feed ingredient. Protein content and essential amino acid profile in the leaves and young stems varies from 15 to 35% depending on the variety. The Mulberry leaves are highly applicable as supplements replacing concentrates for dairy cattle, as the main feed for goats and sheep, and as an ingredient in rabbits and pigs’ diets. Farmers growing mulberry fodder offer higher protein content to livestock than those relying on different varieties of Napier grass, which have failed to boost milk production despite the amounts fed. In non-ruminant production, fishmeal and soybean meals are the main source of protein. In ruminant production, cottonseed meal and canola meal are the main source of protein. These meals are expensive, inadequate in supply and of variable quality. This often leads to low egg production and poor-quality eggs, hence low income and poverty among farmers. Therefore, efforts have been made to identify locally available protein feed resources that can be used as a protein supplement for livestock. Mulberry leaf meal (MLM) has been identified as a locally available alternative protein and mineral source that are beneficial to livestock and have been proven to improve production. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 11(2): 1-9, Dec 2021

Maria Edvânia Neves Barros ◽  
Francisco Wesller Batista Da Silva ◽  
Eduardo Pereira De Sousa Neto ◽  
Manoel Carlos Da Rocha Bisneto ◽  
Débora Barbosa De Lima ◽  

The suppression of pest populations by a predator depends on two basic components of the predator-prey interaction: the functional and the numerical responses of the predator. Such responses can be affected by exposure to acaricides. In the present study, the effects of acaricides (abamectin, azadirachtin, fenpyroximate, and chlorfenapyr) on the functional and numerical responses of the predatory mite, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) an important natural enemy of the pest mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), were investigated. The exposure of A. largoensis to acaricides occurred through contact with a surface contaminated with dried acaricide residue. Subsequently, A. largoensis exhibited a type II functional response, which was not altered by exposure of any acaricides. However, exposure to abamectin resulted in a decrease in the average mean numbers of prey consumed by a predator. Exposure to acaricides increased prey handling time by 67%, 25%, 38%, and 35% for abamectin, azadirachtin, fenpyroximate, and chlorfenapyr, respectively. Exposure to abamectin reduced the attack rate of A. largoensis by 52%. The numerical response of A. largoensis was only affected by exposure to abamectin, where just 60% of the females oviposited, and regardless of the prey density, the average mean numbers of eggs/female/day was always less than 0.4. The food conversion efficiency into biomass of A. largoensis eggs decreased with increasing prey density, and this trend was not altered by exposure to any acaricides. However, exposure to abamectin drastically compromised the oviposition of A. largoensis, showing no increase in egg production with increasing prey density.

2022 ◽  
Bulelani Elvis Mazizi ◽  
Kennedy Honey Erlwanger ◽  
Eliton Chivandi

Abstract Marula nut meal (MNM) can substitute soyabean meal (SBM) as a dietary protein source in Japanese quail diets without compromising growth performance and egg production. However, MNM has a high residual oil content which may impact metabolic health. The effects of MNM on hepatic lipid content and general, liver and kidney health have not been determined in both broilers and layers. Accordingly, two studies were run. In the broiler study two hundred 9-days old Japanese quail were randomly allocated to five diets wherein MNM replaced SBM on a crude protein (CP) basis at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively, in both grower and finisher diets. In the layer study, sixty 5-weeks old Japanese maiden hens, individually housed, were randomly allocated to five-layer diets where MNM replaced SBM on a graded CP basis as for the broilers and fed for 8 weeks. At study termination the birds were slaughtered, blood collected and plasma harvested. Livers were excised, weighed and liver lipid content determined. Plasma surrogate markers of general health, liver and kidney function were determined. Dietary MNM had no effect (P > 0.05) on liver lipid content as well plasma surrogate markers of general health, liver and kidney function of the broiler quail. Dietary MNM at 75% of SBM CP significantly increased plasma phosphorus concentration of quail hens compared to that of counterparts fed control. Dietary MNM can be used in broiler and layer Japanese quail diets without risking development of fatty livers and compromising liver and kidney function.

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