adaptation and mitigation
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Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 140
Muxi Cheng ◽  
Bruce McCarl ◽  
Chengcheng Fei

Globally, the climate is changing, and this has implications for livestock. Climate affects livestock growth rates, milk and egg production, reproductive performance, morbidity, and mortality, along with feed supply. Simultaneously, livestock is a climate change driver, generating 14.5% of total anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Herein, we review the literature addressing climate change and livestock, covering impacts, emissions, adaptation possibilities, and mitigation strategies. While the existing literature principally focuses on ruminants, we extended the scope to include non-ruminants. We found that livestock are affected by climate change and do enhance climate change through emissions but that there are adaptation and mitigation actions that can limit the effects of climate change. We also suggest some research directions and especially find the need for work in developing country settings. In the context of climate change, adaptation measures are pivotal to sustaining the growing demand for livestock products, but often their relevance depends on local conditions. Furthermore, mitigation is key to limiting the future extent of climate change and there are a number of possible strategies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 309-331
G. N. Tanjina Hasnat

Tropical dry forests is one of the most unique forest types. It differs from other tropical forests with its climatic behavior like a prominent dry period, little annual rainfall, and high evapotranspiration. Out of six global bioclimatic zones, the forests are distributed in four. Climate change is now the most challenging issue regarding the fate of tropical dry forests. A severe climatic change is estimated to occur between 2040 and 2069 that could drastically change the precipitation pattern, temperature, aridity, and distribution of biodiversity. It could alter the forest type permanently. With a large number of heat-tolerant species, tropical dry forests have a great potentiality to conservationists with the prediction of a large area that could attain the climatic condition favorable for extension of tropical dry forests. But many of the species of tropical dry forests could be extinct due to changing climate at the same time. Proper adaptation and mitigation techniques could minimize the severity of climate change effects.

2022 ◽  
pp. 242-262
Laura Odila Bello Benavides ◽  
Gloria Elena Cruz Sánchez ◽  
Sandra Luz Meza Mesa Ortiz

This chapter presents the results and analysis of the design and development of a training program in climate change education (CCE) aimed at teachers of Normal colleges in Mexico (i.e., higher education institutions dedicated to the training of basic, preschool, primary, and secondary education). Its purpose was to incorporate CCE in the Normal colleges of the State of Veracruz, Mexico; it was materialized with a course workshop and follow-up actions in the implementation of CCE practices. The training proposal is based on the articulation of two conceptual axes: multidisciplinary knowledge on climate change and CCE approaches aimed at managing adaptation and mitigation response actions. From the systematization and analysis of the program, the authors concluded that the incorporation of the CCE as a transversal axis is a complex process that demands broader training processes and continuous support.

2022 ◽  
pp. 354-374
Renalda N. Munubi ◽  
Hieromin A. Lamtane

Over the last century, water temperatures in Lake Tanganyika have risen due to climate change, which increased thermal stratification and reduced the magnitude of nutrient availability. A rise in temperature increases the C:N:P ratio resulting in a poor algal diet. In addition, lake littoral habitat is experiencing increased sediment load due to deforestation of the watershed caused by anthropogenic activities. Sediments cover benthic algae and reduce its nutritional value, consequently affecting the foraging behavior, distribution, and growth performance of algivorous fish. Algae and algivorous fish are an important link in the lake food chain; therefore, if the rise in temperature will continue as predicted, then this may have a cascading effect for the rest of the community in the food chain including human being. This, in turn, may contribute to food insecurity at local and regional levels. To counteract this adaptation and mitigation measures such as environmental monitoring systems and creating new opportunities should be considered.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Lakshmanan Muralikrishnan ◽  
Rabindra N. Padaria ◽  
Anil K. Choudhary ◽  
Anchal Dass ◽  
Shadi Shokralla ◽  

Periodic drought is a major challenge in drought-prone areas of South Asia. A sample survey of farmers (n = 400) from South Asia was conducted to study the farmers’ perception about drought impacts on their socio-economic status, agro-biodiversity, and adaptation besides public institutions’ drought mitigation measures. The results revealed reduced surface and groundwater availability, soil degradation, partial or complete crop failure, increased agricultural fallows and wastelands, biodiversity loss, decrease in agricultural yields, pasture lands, and livestock in drought-impacted South Asia. About 16–26% of the farmers perceived a reduction in the agricultural area and production of commercial crops and millets in drought-prone areas, while changes in the cropping of pulses, oilseeds, horticultural, and fodder crops were minimal. About 57–92% of respondents showed a reduction in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and fish. Unemployment, migration, reduced farm income, and malnutrition were major socio-economic impacts among respondents (38–46%). Despite sufficient public support as a mitigation strategy, the farmers had poor participation (8–65%) for agri-information and adaptation (7–36%) against drought impacts. Hence, researchers, extension agents, and policymakers must develop efficient ‘participatory-mode’ drought adaptation and mitigation policies in watershed-based semi-arid pastoral and agricultural regions of South Asia and similar agro-ecologies across the globe.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Kingsley Eghonghon Ukhurebor ◽  
Paul Atagamen Aidonojie

AbstractThe influence of climate change on agriculture, especially as it relates to the production of food, changes with reverence to duration and space, of which most of these influences are diverse and remarkably uncertain. Undoubtedly, the application of food innovation technology (FIT) in the agricultural processes is an important response for operative and objective adaptation and mitigation of climate change. Consequently, there is a need to urgently re-evaluate the procedures for FIT so as to address the diversities and uncertainties ensuing from these influences of climate change on agriculture with the aim of improving the production of food. Therefore, the application of climate-smart agricultural (CSA) activities with resilience in agricultural events as well as more aids in the application of resources for both in the adaptation and mitigation of climate change by means of FIT will be of great assistance in this regard. Hence, this study presents a facile review of some of the topical developments in the production of food with reverence to the influence of climate change on FIT. Some legal frame-work on climate change with respect to FIT are also been discussed.

Climate ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 172
Peter J. Kappes ◽  
Cassandra E. Benkwitt ◽  
Dena R. Spatz ◽  
Coral A. Wolf ◽  
David J. Will ◽  

Climate change represents a planetary emergency that is exacerbating the loss of native biodiversity. In response, efforts promoting climate change adaptation strategies that improve ecosystem resilience and/or mitigate climate impacts are paramount. Invasive Alien Species are a key threat to islands globally, where strategies such as preventing establishment (biosecurity), and eradication, especially invasive mammals, have proven effective for reducing native biodiversity loss and can also advance ecosystem resilience and create refugia for native species at risk from climate change. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that successful eradications may also contribute to mitigating climate change. Given the cross-sector potential for eradications to reduce climate impacts alongside native biodiversity conservation, we sought to understand when conservation managers and funders explicitly sought to use or fund the eradication of invasive mammals from islands to achieve positive climate outcomes. To provide context, we first summarized available literature of the synergistic relationship between invasive species and climate change, including case studies where invasive mammal eradications served to meet climate adaptation or mitigation solutions. Second, we conducted a systematic review of the literature and eradication-related conference proceedings to identify when these synergistic effects of climate and invasive species were explicitly addressed through eradication practices. Third, we reviewed projects from four large funding entities known to support climate change solutions and/or native biodiversity conservation efforts and identified when eradications were funded in a climate change context. The combined results of our case study summary paired with systematic reviews found that, although eradicating invasive mammals from islands is an effective climate adaptation strategy, island eradications are poorly represented within the climate change adaptation and mitigation funding framework. We believe this is a lost opportunity and encourage eradication practitioners and funders of climate change adaptation to leverage this extremely effective nature-based tool into positive conservation and climate resilience solutions.

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