chromosomal microarray
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Yi Liu ◽  
Yuqiang Lv ◽  
Mehdi Zarrei ◽  
Rui Dong ◽  
Xiaomeng Yang ◽  

AbstractCopy number variants (CNVs) are recognized as a crucial genetic cause of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), the first-tier diagnostic test for individuals with NDDs, has been utilized to detect CNVs in clinical practice, but most reports are still from populations of European ancestry. To contribute more worldwide clinical genomics data, we investigated the genetic etiology of 410 Han Chinese patients with NDDs (151 with autism and 259 with unexplained intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD)) using CMA (Affymetrix) after G-banding karyotyping. Among all the NDD patients, 109 (26.6%) carried clinically relevant CNVs or uniparental disomies (UPDs), and 8 (2.0%) had aneuploidies (6 with trisomy 21 syndrome, 1 with 47,XXY, 1 with 47,XYY). In total, we found 129 clinically relevant CNVs and UPDs, including 32 CNVs in 30 ASD patients, and 92 CNVs and 5 UPDs in 79 ID/DD cases. When excluding the eight patients with aneuploidies, the diagnostic yield of pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNVs and UPDs was 20.9% for all NDDs (84/402), 3.3% in ASD (5/151), and 31.5% in ID/DD (79/251). When aneuploidies were included, the diagnostic yield increased to 22.4% for all NDDs (92/410), and 33.6% for ID/DD (87/259). We identified a de novo CNV in 14.9% (60/402) of subjects with NDDs. Interestingly, a higher diagnostic yield was observed in females (31.3%, 40/128) compared to males (16.1%, 44/274) for all NDDs (P = 4.8 × 10−4), suggesting that a female protective mechanism exists for deleterious CNVs and UPDs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 457
Min-Chih Cheng ◽  
Wei-Hsien Chien ◽  
Yu-Shu Huang ◽  
Ting-Hsuan Fang ◽  
Chia-Hsiang Chen

Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are part of the genetics of schizophrenia; they are highly heterogeneous and personalized. The CNV Analysis Group of the Psychiatric Genomic Consortium (PGC) conducted a large-scale analysis and discovered that recurrent CNVs at eight genetic loci were pathogenic to schizophrenia, including 1q21.1, 2p16.3 (NRXN1), 3q29, 7q11.23, 15q13.3, distal 16p11.2, proximal 16p11.2, and 22q11.2. We adopted a two-stage strategy to translate this knowledge into clinical psychiatric practice. As a screening test, we first developed a real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) panel that simultaneously detected these pathogenic CNVs. Then, we tested the utility of this screening panel by investigating a sample of 557 patients with schizophrenia. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was used to confirm positive cases from the screening test. We detected and confirmed thirteen patients who carried CNVs at these hot loci, including two patients at 1q21.1, one patient at 7q11.2, three patients at 15q13.3, two patients at 16p11.2, and five patients at 22q11.2. The detection rate in this sample was 2.3%, and the concordance rate between the RT-qPCR test panel and CMA was 100%. Our results suggest that a two-stage approach is cost-effective and reliable in achieving etiological diagnosis for some patients with schizophrenia and improving the understanding of schizophrenia genetics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Beata Anna Nowakowska ◽  
Katarzyna Pankiewicz ◽  
Urszula Nowacka ◽  
Magdalena Niemiec ◽  
Szymon Kozłowski ◽  

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is one of the most formidable challenges in present-day antenatal care. Pathological fetal growth is a well-known factor of not only in utero demise in the third trimester, but also postnatal morbidity and unfavorable developmental outcomes, including long-term sequalae such as metabolic diseases, diabetic mellitus or hypertension. In this review, the authors present the current state of knowledge about the genetic disturbances responsible for FGR diagnosis, divided into fetal, placental and maternal causes (including preeclampsia), as well as their impact on prenatal diagnostics, with particular attention on chromosomal microarray (CMA) and noninvasive prenatal testing technique (NIPT).

2021 ◽  
pp. jmedgenet-2021-108147
Florentine Scharf ◽  
Rafaela Magalhaes Leal Silva ◽  
Monika Morak ◽  
Alex Hastie ◽  
Julia M A Pickl ◽  

PurposeApproximately 20% of patients with clinical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) remain unsolved after molecular genetic analysis of the APC and other polyposis genes, suggesting additional pathomechanisms.MethodsWe applied multidimensional genomic analysis employing chromosomal microarray profiling, optical mapping, long-read genome and RNA sequencing combined with FISH and standard PCR of genomic and complementary DNA to decode a patient with an attenuated FAP that had remained unsolved by Sanger sequencing and multigene panel next-generation sequencing for years.ResultsWe identified a complex 3.9 Mb rearrangement involving 14 fragments from chromosome 5q22.1q22.3 of which three were lost, 1 reinserted into chromosome 5 and 10 inserted into chromosome 10q21.3 in a seemingly random order and orientation thus fulfilling the major criteria of chromothripsis. The rearrangement separates APC promoter 1B from the coding ORF (open reading frame) thus leading to allele-specific downregulation of APC mRNA. The rearrangement also involves three additional genes implicated in the APC–Axin–GSK3B–β-catenin signalling pathway.ConclusionsBased on comprehensive genomic analysis, we propose that constitutional chromothripsis dampening APC expression, possibly modified by additional APC–Axin–GSK3B–β-catenin pathway disruptions, underlies the patient’s clinical phenotype. The combinatorial approach we deployed provides a powerful tool set for deciphering unsolved familial polyposis and potentially other tumour syndromes and monogenic diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ting-Xuan Huang ◽  
Gwo-Chin Ma ◽  
Ming Chen ◽  
Wen-Fang Li ◽  
Steven W. Shaw

Many parents with a disabled child caused by a genetic condition appreciate the option of prenatal genetic diagnosis to understand the chance of recurrence in a future pregnancy. Genome-wide tests, such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing, have been increasingly used for prenatal diagnosis, but prenatal counseling can be challenging due to the complexity of genomic data. This situation is further complicated by incidental findings of additional genetic variations in subsequent pregnancies. Here, we report the prenatal identification of a baby with a MECP2 missense variant and 15q11.2 microduplication in a family that has had a child with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy caused by a de novo KCNQ2 variant. An extended segregation analysis including extended relatives, in addition to the parents, was carried out to provide further information for genetic counseling. This case illustrates the challenges of prenatal counseling and highlights the need to understand the clinical and ethical implications of genome-wide tests.

Guanglu Shi ◽  
Jing Xu ◽  
Shirelle F. Barnes ◽  
Midhat S. Farooqi ◽  
Hung S. Luu ◽  

Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 1090
Su Jin Kim ◽  
Dasom Park ◽  
Woori Jang ◽  
Juyoung Lee

Dehydration with hyponatremia can occur from a variety of causes and can be potentially fatal to infants. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare disease that can cause severe dehydration along with hyponatremia and hyperkalemia because of renal tubular unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Autosomal dominant PHA1 (ADPHA1, OMIM #177735) is caused by inactivating mutations in the NR3C2 gene, which encodes the mineralocorticoid receptor, and it can lead to renal salt-wasting, dehydration, and failure to thrive during infancy. Here, we report a case of a 20-day-old female neonate who presented as severe dehydration with hyponatremia and polyuria. We suspected that her diagnosis might be PHA1 based on markedly elevated plasma renin activity and serum aldosterone levels. For the genetic diagnosis of PHA1, we performed targeted exome sequencing of all causative genes of PHA1, but the result was negative. We confirmed by chromosomal microarray that a novel heterozygous microdeletion was found in the 4q31.23 region spanning exons 7–9 of the NR3C2 gene, and the patient was diagnosed with ADPHA1. In conclusion, our patient is a case of ADPHA1 that developed into a salt-wasting crisis in the neonatal period due to a microdeletion of the 4q31.23 region inherited from her father.

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