genomic analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 100968
Doina Ciobanu ◽  
Sandy Chan ◽  
Steven Ahrendt ◽  
C. Alisha Quandt ◽  
Gerald L. Benny ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mizuki Horoiwa ◽  
Takashi Nakamura ◽  
Hideaki Yuasa ◽  
Rei Kajitani ◽  
Yosuke Ameda ◽  

The estimation of larval dispersal on an ecological timescale is significant for conservation of marine species. In 2018, a semi-population outbreak of crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster cf. solaris, was observed on a relatively isolated oceanic island, Ogasawara. The aim of this study was to assess whether this population outbreak was caused by large-scale larval recruitment (termed secondary outbreak) from the Kuroshio region. We estimated larval dispersal of the coral predator A. cf. solaris between the Kuroshio and Ogasawara regions using both population genomic analysis and simulation of oceanographic dispersal. Population genomic analysis revealed overall genetically homogenized patterns among Ogasawara and other Japanese populations, suggesting that the origin of the populations in the two regions is the same. In contrast, a simulation of 26-year oceanographic dispersal indicated that larvae are mostly self-seeded in Ogasawara populations and have difficulty reaching Ogasawara from the Kuroshio region within one generation. However, a connectivity matrix produced by the larval dispersal simulation assuming a Markov chain indicated gradual larval dispersal migration from the Kuroshio region to Ogasawara in a stepping-stone manner over multiple years. These results suggest that the 2018 outbreak was likely the result of self-seeding, including possible inbreeding (as evidenced by clonemate analysis), as large-scale larval dispersal from the Kurishio population to the Ogasawara population within one generation is unlikely. Instead, the population in Ogasawara is basically sustained by self-seedings, and the outbreak in 2018 was also most likely caused by successful self-seedings including possible inbreeding, as evidenced by clonemate analysis. This study also highlighted the importance of using both genomic and oceanographic methods to estimate larval dispersal, which provides significant insight into larval dispersal that occurs on ecological and evolutionary timescales.

2022 ◽  
Pol Nadal-Jimenez ◽  
Stefanos Siozios ◽  
Nigel Halliday ◽  
Miguel Camara ◽  
Greg D.D. Hurst

Bacterial endosymbionts are found in multiple arthropod species, where they play crucial roles as nutritional symbionts, defensive symbionts or reproductive parasites. Recent work has highlighted a new clade of heritable microbes within the gammaproteobacteria that enter into both obligate and facultative symbioses, with an obligately required unculturable symbiont recently given the name Cand. Symbiopectobacterium. In this study, we describe a culturable rod shaped non-flagellated bacterial symbiont from this clade isolated from the leafhopper Empoasca decipiens. The symbiont is related to the transovarially-transmitted 'BEV' bacterium that was first isolated from the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus by Alexander Purcell, and we therefore name the symbiont Symbiopectobacterium purcellii sp. nov. gen. nov. We further report the closed genome sequence for S. purcellii. The genome is atypical for a heritable microbe, being large in size, without profound AT bias and with little evidence of pseudogenization. The genome is predicted to encode Type II, III and VI secretion systems and associated effectors and a non-ribosomal peptide synthase array likely to produce bioactive small molecules. Predicted metabolism is more complete than for other symbionts in the Symbiopectobacterium clade, and the microbe is predicted to synthesize a range of B vitamins. However, Biolog plate analysis indicate metabolism is depauperate compared to the sister clade, represented by Pectobacterium carotovorum. A quorum-sensing pathway related to that of Pectobacterium spp. (containing an overlapping expI-expR1 pair in opposite directions and a "solo" expR2) is evidenced, and LC-MS/MS analysis reveals the presence of 3-hydroxy-C10-HSL as the sole N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) in our strain. This AHL profile is profoundly divergent from that of other Erwinia and Pectobacterium spp., which produce mostly 3-oxo-C6- and 3-oxo-C8-HSL and could aid group identification. Thus, this microbe denotes one that has lost certain pathways associated with a saprophytic lifestyle but represents an important baseline against which to compare other members of the genus Symbiopectobacterium that show more profound integration into host biology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 189
Ignacio Vasquez ◽  
Ahmed Hossain ◽  
Hajarooba Gnanagobal ◽  
Katherinne Valderrama ◽  
Briony Campbell ◽  

Aeromonas salmonicida is a global distributed Gram-negative teleost pathogen, affecting mainly salmonids in fresh and marine environments. A. salmonicida strains are classified as typical or atypical depending on their origin of isolation and phenotype. Five subspecies have been described, where A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the only typical subspecies, and the subsp. achromogenes, masoucida, smithia, and pectinolytica are considered atypical. Genomic differences between A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolates and their relationship with the current classification have not been explored. Here, we sequenced and compared the complete closed genomes of four virulent strains to elucidate their molecular diversity and pathogenic evolution using the more accurate genomic information so far. Phenotypes, biochemical, and enzymatic profiles were determined. PacBio and MiSeq sequencing platforms were utilized for genome sequencing. Comparative genomics showed that atypical strains belong to the subsp. salmonicida, with 99.55 ± 0.25% identity with each other, and are closely related to typical strains. The typical strain A. salmonicida J223 is closely related to typical strains, with 99.17% identity with the A. salmonicida A449. Genomic differences between atypical and typical strains are strictly related to insertion sequences (ISs) activity. The absence and presence of genes encoding for virulence factors, transcriptional regulators, and non-coding RNAs are the most significant differences between typical and atypical strains that affect their phenotypes. Plasmidome plays an important role in A. salmonicida virulence and genome plasticity. Here, we determined that typical strains harbor a larger number of plasmids and virulence-related genes that contribute to its acute virulence. In contrast, atypical strains harbor a single, large plasmid and a smaller number of virulence genes, reflected by their less acute virulence and chronic infection. The relationship between phenotype and A. salmonicida subspecies’ taxonomy is not evident. Comparative genomic analysis based on completed genomes revealed that the subspecies classification is more of a reflection of the ecological niche occupied by bacteria than their divergences at the genomic level except for their accessory genome.

2022 ◽  
ZHENG Tan ◽  
Hui Zhai ◽  
Ruqi Sun ◽  
Ruyu Xie ◽  
Zhe Sun ◽  

Abstract Astroviruses are considered the cause of gastroenteritis in humans and animals. Studies in recent years show avian astroviruses are also associated with duckling hepatitis, gosling gout, and chicken nephritis. In this study, a GAstV strain, designated as JS2019/China, was detected in dead goslings from a commercial goose farm in Jiangsu province of China. Viral strain was proliferated in goose embryos and sequence analysis showed the isolated strain had a classical structure arrangement and a series of conserved regions compared with other GAstVs. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of whole genome and ORF2 revealed that JS2019/China belongs to the GAstV group-1, which consists of most of the GAstV strains. Amino acid analysis indicated that some mutants might have an impact on viral protease capacity, such as V505I and K736E of ORF1a and T107I, F342S, and S606P of ORF2. Taken together, a novel GAstV strain was isolated and genomic analysis and protein polymorphism analysis indicated that some amino acid mutants might affect the viral virulence.

2022 ◽  
Takanori Yamashiro ◽  
Akira Shiraishi ◽  
Koji Nakayama ◽  
Honoo Satake

Abstract The plant Tanacetum coccineum (painted daisy) is closely related to Tanacetum cinerariifolium (pyrethrum daisy). However, T. cinerariifolium produces large amounts of pyrethrins, a class of natural insecticides, whereas T. coccineum produces much smaller amounts of these compounds. Thus, comparative genomic analysis is expected to contribute a great deal to investigating the difference in biological defense systems, including pyrethrin biosynthesis. Here, we elucidated the 9.4-Gb draft genome of T. coccineum, consisting of 2,836,647 scaffolds and 103,680 genes. Comparative analyses of the draft genome of T. coccineum and that of T. cinerariifolium, generated in our previous study, revealed distinct features of T. coccineum genes. While the T. coccineum genome contains more numerous ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP)-encoding genes, the number of higher-toxicity type-II RIP-encoding genes is larger in T. cinerariifolium. Furthermore, the number of histidine kinases encoded by the T. coccineum genome is smaller than that of T. cinerariifolium, suggesting a biological correlation with pyrethrin biosynthesis. Moreover, the flanking regions of pyrethrin biosynthesis-related genes are also distinct between these two plants. These results provide clues to elucidation of species-specific biodefense systems, including the regulatory mechanisms underlying pyrethrin production.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Keiko Shimojima Yamamoto ◽  
Taiju Utshigisawa ◽  
Hiromi Ogura ◽  
Takako Aoki ◽  
Takahiro Kawakami ◽  

AbstractHereditary spherocytosis is the most frequent cause of hereditary hemolytic anemia and is classified into five subtypes (SPH1-5) according to OMIM. Because the clinical and laboratory features of patients with SPH1-5 are variable, it is difficult to classify these patients into the five subtypes based only on these features. We performed target capture sequencing in 51 patients with hemolytic anemia associated with/without morphological abnormalities in red blood cells. Thirteen variants were identified in five hereditary spherocytosis-related genes (six in ANK1 [SPH1]; four in SPTB [SPH2]; and one in each of SPTA1 [SPH3], SLC4A1 [SPH4], and EPB42 [SPH5]). Among these variants, seven were novel. The distribution pattern of the variants was different from that reported previously in Japan but similar to those reported in other Asian countries. Comprehensive genomic analysis would be useful and recommended, especially for patients without a detailed family history and those receiving frequent blood transfusions due to chronic hemolytic anemia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Sofiane Bendifallah ◽  
Anne Puchar ◽  
Stéphane Suisse ◽  
Léa Delbos ◽  
Mathieu Poilblanc ◽  

AbstractEndometriosis—a systemic and chronic condition occurring in women of childbearing age—is a highly enigmatic disease with unresolved questions. While multiple biomarkers, genomic analysis, questionnaires, and imaging techniques have been advocated as screening and triage tests for endometriosis to replace diagnostic laparoscopy, none have been implemented routinely in clinical practice. We investigated the use of machine learning algorithms (MLA) in the diagnosis and screening of endometriosis based on 16 key clinical and patient-based symptom features. The sensitivity, specificity, F1-score and AUCs of the MLA to diagnose endometriosis in the training and validation sets varied from 0.82 to 1, 0–0.8, 0–0.88, 0.5–0.89, and from 0.91 to 0.95, 0.66–0.92, 0.77–0.92, respectively. Our data suggest that MLA could be a promising screening test for general practitioners, gynecologists, and other front-line health care providers. Introducing MLA in this setting represents a paradigm change in clinical practice as it could replace diagnostic laparoscopy. Furthermore, this patient-based screening tool empowers patients with endometriosis to self-identify potential symptoms and initiate dialogue with physicians about diagnosis and treatment, and hence contribute to shared decision making.

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