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Updated Saturday, 18 September 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Heming Wu ◽  
Qingyan Huang ◽  
Xia Zhang ◽  
Zhikang Yu ◽  
Zhixiong Zhong

The purpose of this study was to explore the copy number variations (CNVs) associated with miscarriage during early and middle pregnancy and provide useful genetic guidance for pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis. A total of 505 fetal specimens were collected and CNV sequencing (CNV-seq) analysis was performed to determine the types and clinical significance of CNVs, and relevant medical records were collected. The chromosomal abnormality rate was 54.3% (274/505), among which the numerical chromosomal abnormality rate was 40.0% (202/505) and structural chromosomal abnormality rate was 14.3% (72/505). Chromosomal monosomy mainly occurred on sex chromosomes, and chromosomal trisomy mainly occurred on chromosomes 16, 22, 21, 15, 13, and 9. The incidence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities in ≥35 year-old age pregnant women was significantly higher than <35 year-old age group. The highest incidence of pathogenic CNV (pCNV) was found in fetuses at ≤6 weeks of pregnancy (5.26%), and the incidence of variants of unknown significance (VOUS) CNVs decreased gradually with the increase of gestational age. The rate of chromosomal abnormalities of fetuses in early pregnancy (59.5%) was higher than that of fetuses in middle pregnancy (27.2%) (p < 0.001). There were 168 genes in VOUS + pCNV regions. 41 functions and 12 pathways (p < 0.05) were enriched of these genes by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Some meaningful genetic etiology information such as genes and pathways has been obtained, it may provide useful genetic guidance for pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Waylon J. Hastings ◽  
Dan T. A. Eisenberg ◽  
Idan Shalev

Background: Precise determination of amplification efficiency is critical for reliable conversion of within-sample changes in fluorescence occurring on a logarithmic scale to between-sample differences in DNA content occurring on a linear scale. This endeavor is especially challenging for the telomere length (TL) quantitative-PCR (qPCR) assay, where amplification efficiency can vary between reactions targeting telomeric repeats (T) and those targeting a single-copy gene (S) to calculate TL as the T/S ratio.Methods: We compared seven different approaches toward estimating amplification efficiency, including the standard-curve method utilized by the qPCR instrument software, and alternative approaches which estimate efficiency on a reaction-by-reaction basis using the stand-alone program LinRegPCR. After calculating T/S ratios using efficiency estimates from each approach (N = 363), we tested their relative performance on metrics of assay precision and correlates of external validity including chronological age (age range = 1–72 years), across tissues within-person (leukocyte-buccal), and between parents and offspring.Results: Estimated amplification efficiency for telomere reactions was significantly lower than estimates for single-copy gene reactions. Efficiency estimates for both reaction sets were significantly higher when estimated with the standard-curve method utilized by the qPCR instrument relative to estimates reconstructed during the log-linear phase with LinRegPCR. While estimates of single-copy gene efficiency reconstructed using LinRegPCR measured within 90% of perfect exponential doubling (E = 1.92), estimates generated using the standard-curve method were inflated beyond 100% (E = 2.10–2.12), indicating poor fidelity. Despite differences in raw value, TL measurements calculated with LinRegPCR efficiency estimates exhibited similar relationships with external validity correlates to measurements generated using the qPCR instrument software.Conclusion: Since methods to estimate amplification efficiency can vary across qPCR instruments, we suggest that future analyses empirically consider external methods of efficiency calculations such as LinRegPCR, and that already generated data be re-analyzed to glean possible improvements.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kun Fang ◽  
Hairong Qu ◽  
Jiapei Wang ◽  
Desheng Tang ◽  
Changsheng Yan ◽  
...  

Objective: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification may modulate various biological processes. Nonetheless, clinical implications of m6A modification in pancreatic cancer are undefined. Herein, this study comprehensively characterized the m6A modification patterns in pancreatic cancer based on m6A regulators.Methods: Genetic mutation and expression pattern of 21 m6A regulators and their correlations were assessed in pancreatic cancer from TCGA dataset. m6A modification patterns were clustered using unsupervised clustering analysis in TCGA and ICGC datasets. Differences in survival, biological functions and immune cell infiltrations were assessed between modification patterns. A m6A scoring system was developed by principal component analysis. Genetic mutations and TIDE scores were compared between high and low m6A score groups.Results: ZC3H13 (11%), RBM15B (9%), YTHDF1 (8%), and YTHDC1 (6%) frequently occurred mutations among m6A regulators. Also, most of regulators were distinctly dysregulated in pancreatic cancer. There were tight crosslinks between regulators. Two m6A modification patterns were constructed, with distinct prognoses, immune cell infiltration and biological functions. Furthermore, we quantified m6A score in each sample. High m6A scores indicated undesirable clinical outcomes. There were more frequent mutations in high m6A score samples. Lower TIDE score was found in high m6A score group, with AUC = 0.61, indicating that m6A scores might be used for predicting the response to immunotherapy.Conclusion: Collectively, these data demonstrated that m6A modification participates pancreatic cancer progress and ornaments immune microenvironment, providing an insight into pancreatic cancer pathogenesis and facilitating precision medicine development.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dahua Xu ◽  
Shun Ding ◽  
Meng Cao ◽  
Xiaorong Yu ◽  
Hong Wang ◽  
...  

Cystatin E/M (CST6), a representative cysteine protease inhibitor, plays both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing functions and is pursued as an epigenetically therapeutic target in special cancer types. However, a comprehensive and systematic analysis for CST6 in pan-cancer level is still lacking. In the present study, we explored the expression pattern of CST6 in multiple cancer types across ∼10,000 samples from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) and ∼8,000 samples from MMDs (Merged Microarray-acquired Datasets). We found that the dynamic expression alteration of CST6 was consistent with dual function in different types of cancer. In addition, we observed that the expression of CST6 was globally regulated by the DNA methylation in its promoter region. CST6 expression was positively correlated with the epithelial cell infiltration involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and proliferation. The relationship between CST6 and tumor microenvironment was also explored. In particular, we found that CST6 serves a protective function in the process of melanoma metastasis. Finally, the clinical association analysis further revealed the dual function of CST6 in cancer, and a combination of the epithelial cell infiltration and CST6 expression could predict the prognosis for SKCM patients. In summary, this first CST6 pan-cancer study improves the understanding of the dual functional effects on CST6 in different types of human cancer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jinghang Zhou ◽  
Liyuan Liu ◽  
Thomas J. Lopdell ◽  
Dorian J. Garrick ◽  
Yuangang Shi

Detection of CNVs (copy number variants) and ROH (runs of homozygosity) from SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotyping data is often required in genomic studies. The post-analysis of CNV and ROH generally involves many steps, potentially across multiple computing platforms, which requires the researchers to be familiar with many different tools. In order to get around this problem and improve research efficiency, we present an R package that integrates the summarization, annotation, map conversion, comparison and visualization functions involved in studies of CNV and ROH. This one-stop post-analysis system is standardized, comprehensive, reproducible, timesaving, and user-friendly for researchers in humans and most diploid livestock species.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fei Yao ◽  
Xiaochen Xiang ◽  
Chuanren Zhou ◽  
Qiyou Huang ◽  
Xiaoying Huang ◽  
...  

Chemoresistance is a major clinical obstacle for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new type of non-coding RNA that participated in the development of chemoresistance. However, the profiles and effects of circRNAs in 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and cisplatin resistance of CRC are still unclear and need to be elucidated. In the present study, the profiles of circRNAs in CRC chemoresistant (HCT8/5-Fu and HCT8/DDP) and chemosensitive (HCT8) cell lines were identified via RNA-sequencing. In total, 48 and 90 differentially expressed (DE)-circRNAs were detected in HCT8/5-Fu and HCT8/DDP cell lines, respectively. Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis were conducted on the host genes of DE-circRNAs; the results showed that the most significant enrichment pathways in HCT8/5-Fu and HCT8/DDP cell lines were base excision repair and Hippo signaling pathway, respectively. In addition, 11 common DE-circRNAs in the two drug-resistant cell lines (two are upregulated and nine are downregulated) were screened and verified by quantitative real-time PCR; hsacirc_023607 and hsacirc_007420 were found to be the circRNAs with the highest upregulation and downregulation fold changes. However, functional studies showed hsacirc_023607 has no effect on CRC chemoresistance. Therefore, the regulatory networks of targeted miRNAs related to 5-Fu or cisplatin resistance were predicted and constructed, in which hsacirc_002482 was identified as a hub gene, and its overexpression could suppress HCT8/5-Fu and HCT8/DDP cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis, and enhance cell chemosensitivity. Taken together, these results of the study suggested that hsacirc_002482 may play important roles in chemoresistance of CRC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anshuman Panda ◽  
Mi ryung Shin ◽  
Christina Cheng ◽  
Manisha Bajpai

Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) arises from Barrett’s epithelium (BE), and chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease is considered the strongest risk factor for disease progression. All BE patients undergo acid suppressive therapy, surveillance, and BE removal by surgery or endoscopic ablation, yet the incidence of EAC continues to increase. Despite the known side effects and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach is the standard clinical management as there are no reliable methods for risk stratification.Methods: Paired-end Illumina NextSeq500 RNA sequencing was performed on total RNA extracted from 20-week intervals (0, 20, 40, and 60 W) of an in vitro BE carcinogenesis (BEC) model to construct time series global gene expression patterns (GEPs). The cells from two strategic time points (20 and 40 W) based on the GEPs were grown for another 20 weeks, with and without further acid and bile salt (ABS) stimulation, and the recurrent neoplastic cell phenotypes were evaluated.Results: Hierarchical clustering of 866 genes with ≥ twofold change in transcript levels across the four time points revealed maximum variation between the BEC20W and BEC40W cells. Enrichment analysis confirmed that the genes altered ≥ twofold during this window period associated with carcinogenesis and malignancy. Intriguingly, the BEC20W cells required further ABS exposure to gain neoplastic changes, but the BEC40W cells progressed to malignant transformation after 20 weeks even in the absence of additional ABS.Discussion: The transcriptomic gene expression patterns in the BEC model demonstrate evidence of a clear threshold in the progression of BE to malignancy. Catastrophic transcriptomic changes during a window period culminate in the commitment of the BE cells to a “point of no return,” and removal of ABS is not effective in preventing their malignant transformation. Discerning this “point of no return” during BE surveillance by tracking the GEPs has the potential to evaluate risk of BE progression and enable personalized clinical management.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jianwei Lin ◽  
Zichao Cao ◽  
Dingye Yu ◽  
Wei Cai

The prognosis of colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) remains poor. However, the specific and sensitive biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of COAD are absent. Transcription factors (TFs) are involved in many biological processes in cells. As the molecule of the signal pathway of the terminal effectors, TFs play important roles in tumorigenesis and development. A growing body of research suggests that aberrant TFs contribute to the development of COAD, as well as to its clinicopathological features and prognosis. In consequence, a few studies have investigated the relationship between the TF-related risk model and the prognosis of COAD. Therefore, in this article, we hope to develop a prognostic risk model based on TFs to predict the prognosis of patients with COAD. The mRNA transcription data and corresponding clinical data were downloaded from TCGA and GEO. Then, 141 differentially expressed genes, validated by the GEPIA2 database, were identified by differential expression analysis between normal and tumor samples. Univariate, multivariate and Lasso Cox regression analysis were performed to identify seven prognostic genes (E2F3, ETS2, HLF, HSF4, KLF4, MEIS2, and TCF7L1). The Kaplan–Meier curve and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC, 1-year AUC: 0.723, 3-year AUC: 0.775, 5-year AUC: 0.786) showed that our model could be used to predict the prognosis of patients with COAD. Multivariate Cox analysis also reported that the risk model is an independent prognostic factor of COAD. The external cohort (GSE17536 and GSE39582) was used to validate our risk model, which indicated that our risk model may be a reliable predictive model for COAD patients. Finally, based on the model and the clinicopathological factors, we constructed a nomogram with a C-index of 0.802. In conclusion, we emphasize the clinical significance of TFs in COAD and construct a prognostic model of TFs, which could provide a novel and reliable model for the prognosis of COAD.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Chengnan Tian ◽  
Yanchen Yang ◽  
Yingjie Ke ◽  
Liang Yang ◽  
Lishan Zhong ◽  
...  

Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) induces right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a common heart disease, and eventually leads to severe heart failure and serious clinical complications. Accumulating evidence shows that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathological process of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. However, the regulatory mechanisms and functional roles of RNA interactions in TR-induced right ventricular cardiomyopathy are still unclear. Accordingly, we performed integrative analyses of genes associated with right ventricular cardiomyopathy induced by TR to study the roles of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing data of tissue samples from nine clinical cases of right ventricular myocardial cardiomyopathy induced by TR and nine controls with normal right ventricular myocardium from the Genotype-Tissue Expression database. We identified differentially expressed lncRNAs and constructed a protein-protein interaction and lncRNA-messenger RNA (mRNA) co-expression network. Furthermore, we determined hub lncRNA-mRNA modules related to right ventricular myocardial disease induced by TR and constructed a competitive endogenous RNA network for TR-induced right ventricular myocardial disease by integrating the interaction of lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA. In addition, we analyzed the immune infiltration using integrated data and the correlation of each immune-related gene with key genes of the integrated expression matrix. The present study identified 648 differentially expressed mRNAs, 201 differentially expressed miRNAs, and 163 differentially expressed lncRNAs. Protein-protein interaction network analysis confirmed that ADRA1A, AVPR1B, OPN4, IL-1B, IL-1A, CXCL4, ADCY2, CXCL12, GNB4, CCL20, CXCL8, and CXCL1 were hub genes. CTD-2314B22.3, hsa-miR-653-5p, and KIF17ceRNA; SRGAP3-AS2, hsa-miR-539-5p, and SHANK1; CERS6-AS1, hsa-miR-497-5p, and OPN4; INTS6-AS1, hsa-miR-4262, and NEURL1B; TTN-AS1, hsa-miR-376b-3p, and TRPM5; and DLX6-AS1, hsa-miR-346, and BIRC7 axes were obtained by constructing the ceRNA networks. Through the immune infiltration analysis, we found that the proportion of CD4 and CD8 T cells was about 20%, and the proportion of fibroblasts and endothelial cells was high. Our findings provide some insights into the mechanisms of RNA interaction in TR-induced right ventricular cardiomyopathy and suggest that lncRNAs are a potential therapeutic target for treating right ventricular myocardial disease induced by TR.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhen Liu ◽  
Yuanming Li ◽  
Jinyong Zhu ◽  
Wenjing Ma ◽  
Zhitao Li ◽  
...  

Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is a ubiquitous transcription factor in eukaryotes, which is composed of three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC). NF-Y has been identified as a key regulator of multiple pathways in plants. Although the NF-Y gene family has been identified in many plants, it has not been reported in potato (Solanum tuberosum). In the present study, a total of 41 NF-Y proteins in potato (StNF-Ys) were identified, including 10 StNF-YA, 22 StNF-YB, and nine StNF-YC subunits, and their distribution on chromosomes, gene structure, and conserved motif was analyzed. A synteny analysis indicated that 14 and 38 pairs of StNF-Y genes were orthologous to Arabidopsis and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), respectively, and these gene pairs evolved under strong purifying selection. In addition, we analyzed the expression profiles of NF-Y genes in different tissues of double haploid (DM) potato, as well as under abiotic stresses and hormone treatments by RNA-seq downloaded from the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC) database. Furthermore, we performed RNA-seq on white, red, and purple tuber skin and flesh of three potato cultivars at the tuber maturation stage to identify genes that might be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. These results provide valuable information for improved understanding of StNF-Y gene family and further functional analysis of StNF-Y genes in fruit development, abiotic stress tolerance, and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato.


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