heavy ion
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Shin-ichi Sawada

Abstract Track-etched nanoporous membranes prepared by swift heavy ion irradiation are promising for separation processes such as water purification. However, one drawback is that multiple pores are undesirably formed by pore overlapping to reduce separation performance. The techniques for predicting the size and amount of multiple pores in detail are still underdeveloped, which hinders the precise membrane design. In this study, a computer simulation program was developed to predict the size distribution of the track-etched pores. The program generates a number of single pores on the virtual grid plane to simulate random ion bombardment, finds multiple pores containing several single pores, and determines the multiple pore size by counting the inside grid points. All the multiple pores are categorized into different size classes, and the areal percentage occupied by the pores belonging to each size class is estimated. The simulation algorithm and the results of a model case simulation were described.

2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
Charles Gale ◽  
Jean-François Paquet ◽  
Björn Schenke ◽  
Chun Shen

2022 ◽  
Vol 105 (1) ◽  
Susanne Gläßel ◽  
Viktar Kireyeu ◽  
Vadim Voronyuk ◽  
Jörg Aichelin ◽  
Christoph Blume ◽  

Radoslav Bučík

Impulsive solar energetic particle (ISEP) events show peculiar elemental composition, with enhanced 3He and heavy-ion abundances, markedly different from our Solar System composition. Furthermore, the events are characterized by a wide variety of energy spectral shapes from power laws to rounded spectra toward the low energies. Solar sources of the events have been firmly associated with coronal jets. Surprisingly, new observations have shown that events are often accompanied by so-called extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) coronal waves–a large-scale phenomenon compared to jets. This paper outlines the current understanding of the linkage of EUV waves with jets and energetic ions in ISEP events.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 84
Pattarakan Suwanbut ◽  
Thiansin Liamsuwan ◽  
Danupon Nantajit ◽  
Wilai Masa-nga ◽  
Chirapha Tannanonta

Decision for radiotherapy during the first trimester of pregnancy may occur, as patients may not realize their pregnancy at the very early stage. Since radiation dose can affect fetal development, the aim of this study was to evaluate fetal dose and associated deterministic effects and risks to the fetus from breast cancer radiotherapy of an 8-week pregnant patient. PHITS (Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System) Monte Carlo simulation and the J-45 computational pregnancy phantom were used to simulate breast cancer radiotherapy from a 6 MV TrueBeam linear accelerator using the three dimensional-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique with a prescribed dose to the planning target volume (PTV) of 50 Gy. Once the fetal dose was evaluated, the occurrence of the deterministic effects and risks for developing stochastic effects in the fetus were assessed using the recommendations of NCRP Report No. 174, AAPM Report No. 50, and ICRP Publication 84. The fetal dose was evaluated to be 3.37 ± 2.66 mGy, suggesting that the fetus was expected to have no additional deterministic effects, while the risks for developing cancer and malfunctions were similar to that expected from exposure to background radiation. The comparison with the other studies showed that accurate consideration of fetal position and size was important for dose determination in the fetus, especially at the early pregnancy stage when the fetus is very small.

Glauber Sampaio dos Santos ◽  
Gustavo Gil Da Silveira ◽  
Magno Valério Trindade Machado

Abstract An analysis of prompt photon production in high energy nuclear collisions at the LHC is performed within the parton saturation picture taking into account the updated phenomenological color dipole models. Comparison between $\langle N_{coll}\rangle$ scaling for hard scattering in heavy-ion collisions and the $N_{part}$-scaling based on geometric scaling arguments has been done. The predictions are parameter free in the first case whereas a dependence on the constant of proportionality $\kappa$ between the number of participants and the nuclear saturation scale appears in the second case. This parameter has been analyzed in the prompt photon spectrum at small transverse momentum even though no fitting procedure was performed. Results are confronted with the measurements made by the ALICE, ATLAS, and CMS experiments in terms of photon transverse momentum at different rapidity bins. We show that the prompt photon production exhibits distinct scalings in $AA$ events associated to geometrical properties of the collision and can be properly addressed in the color dipole formalism. Based on the $N_{part}$-scaling, an analytical parametrization for the invariant cross section is provided and employed to predict the $x_T$-scaling in measurements. For $\kappa$ of order of unit the theoretical scaling curve correctly describes data in the range $x_T\leq 5\times 10^{-2}$.

J ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-14
Yuri Sinyukov ◽  
Volodymyr Shapoval

The results on description of direct photon yields, transverse momentum spectra, and flow harmonics, measured in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for different collision centrality classes, analyzed within the Integrated Hydrokinetic Model (iHKM) are reviewed. The iHKM simulation results, corresponding to the two opposite approaches to the matter evolution treatment at the final stage of the system’s expansion within the model, namely, the chemically equilibrated and the chemically frozen evolution, are compared. The so-called “direct photon puzzle” is addressed, and its possible solution, suggesting the account for additional photon emission at confinement, is considered.

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