Japanese Journal of Applied Physics
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Published By Japan Society Of Applied Physics

1347-4065, 0021-4922

Author(s):  
Satoshi Inoue ◽  
Yoshiaki HATTORI ◽  
Masatoshi KITAMURA

Abstract A trimethylsilyl-monolayer modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light has been investigated for use in solution-processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The VUV irradiation changed a hydrophobic trimethylsilyl-monolayer formed from hexamethyldisilazane vapor into a hydrophilic surface suitable for solution processing. The treated surface was examined via water contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An appropriate irradiation of VUV light enabled the formation of a dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) film on a modified monolayer by spin-coating. Consequently, the C8-BTBT-based OTFT with a monolayer modified for an optimal VUV irradiation time exhibited a field-effect mobility up to 4.76 cm2 V−1 s−1. The partial monolayer modification with VUV can be adapted to a variety of solution-processes and organic semiconductors for prospective printed electronics.


Author(s):  
Shin-ichi Sawada

Abstract Track-etched nanoporous membranes prepared by swift heavy ion irradiation are promising for separation processes such as water purification. However, one drawback is that multiple pores are undesirably formed by pore overlapping to reduce separation performance. The techniques for predicting the size and amount of multiple pores in detail are still underdeveloped, which hinders the precise membrane design. In this study, a computer simulation program was developed to predict the size distribution of the track-etched pores. The program generates a number of single pores on the virtual grid plane to simulate random ion bombardment, finds multiple pores containing several single pores, and determines the multiple pore size by counting the inside grid points. All the multiple pores are categorized into different size classes, and the areal percentage occupied by the pores belonging to each size class is estimated. The simulation algorithm and the results of a model case simulation were described.


Author(s):  
Osamu Ueda ◽  
Makoto Kasu ◽  
Hirotaka Yamaguchi

Abstract This paper reviews the status of characterization of defects in β-Ga2O3 crystals grown by edge-defined film-fed growth and hydride vapor phase epitaxy using chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam scanning ion microscopy, X-ray topography (XRT), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The observed defects are classified into four types: dislocations, stacking faults (SFs), twins, and plate-like nanovoids (PNVs). First, we present the detailed characterization of dislocations in the crystal by chemical etching, XRT, and TEM, and discuss possible slip systems. Next, we describe XRT analyses of two types of SFs: SFs 1 lying on the (2 ̅01) plane and SFs 2 on the (111) and (11 ̅1) planes. We describe the results for twins found in crystals via high-resolution TEM and electron diffraction analysis, and PNVs corresponding to etch pits on the (010) plane. Finally, we discuss possible generation mechanisms of the defects and their influence on device characteristics.


Author(s):  
Dae Hyun Jung ◽  
Guen Hyung Oh ◽  
Sang-il Kim ◽  
TAEWAN KIM

Abstract A top-gate field-effect transistor (FET), based on monolayer (ML) tungsten disulfide (WS2), and with an ion-gel dielectric was developed. The high electrical contact resistance of the Schottky contacts at the n-type transition metal dichalcogenides/metal electrode interfaces often adversely affects the device performance. We report the contact resistance and Schottky barrier height of an FET with Au electrodes. The FET is based on ML WS2 that was synthesised using chemical vapour deposition and was assessed using the transfer-length method and low-temperature measurements. Raman and photoluminescence spectra were recorded to determine the optical properties of the WS2 layers. The ML WS2 FET with an ion-gel top gate dielectric exhibits n-type behaviour, with a mobility, on/off ratio of 1.97 cm2/V·s, 1.51×105, respectively.


Author(s):  
Shinya Kano ◽  
Harutaka MEKARU

Abstract We study a proton transport on the surface of insulating nanoparticles for humidity sensors. We use the approach to reveal proton transfer mechanisms in humidity sensitive materials. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ligand-terminated silica nanoparticle films are adopted for evaluating temperature dependence of the ion conductivity. According to the activation energy of the conductivity, we explain the Grotthuss (H+ transfer) and vehicular (H3O+ transfer) mechanisms are mainly dominant on hydrophilic (-OH terminated) and hydrophobic (acrylate terminated) surface of nanoparticles, respectively. This investigation gives us a clue to understand a proton transfer mechanism in solution-processed humidity-sensitive materials such as oxide nanomaterials.


Author(s):  
Akiyoshi Inoue ◽  
Sakura Tanaka ◽  
Takashi Egawa ◽  
Makoto Miyoshi

Abstract In this study, we fabricated and characterized heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) based on an Al0.36Ga0.64N-channel heterostructure with a dual AlN/AlGaInN barrier layer. The device fabrication was accomplished by adopting a regrown n++-GaN layer for ohmic contacts. The fabricated HFETs with a gate length of 2 μm and a gate-to-drain distance of 6 μm exhibited an on-state drain current density as high as approximately 270 mA/mm and an off-state breakdown voltage of approximately 1 kV, which corresponds to an off-state critical electric field of 166 V/μm. This breakdown field, as a comparison in devices without field-plate electrodes, reaches approximately four-fold higher than that for conventional GaN-channel HFETs and was considered quite reasonable as an Al0.36Ga0.64N-channel transistor. It was also confirmed that the devices adopting the dual AlN/AlGaInN barrier layer showed approximately one order of magnitude smaller gate leakage currents than those for devices without the top AlN barrier layer.


Author(s):  
Toshihide IDE ◽  
Mitsuaki Shimizu ◽  
Noriyuki TAKADA

Abstract We establish the method for estimating the stray elements of the GaN-WPT circuit by measuring the radiated emission around the GaN switching device. By controlling the circuit supply voltage, the spectrum peak shift due to the output capacitance of the GaN-HEMT is observed. It is found that these peak shift characteristics include the influence of both the stray wire inductance and stray capacitance. By the fitting using the series resonance model, the value of the stray inductance and stray capacitance can be estimated in the non-destructive measurement in the GaN-WPT circuit.


Author(s):  
Naoki Tanaka ◽  
Kyoko Matsuoka ◽  
Takahiro KOZAWA ◽  
Takuya Ikeda ◽  
Yoshitaka Komuro ◽  
...  

Abstract The dissolution behavior of a simple combination of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) films and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) aqueous solution was analyzed to gain a fundamental understanding of the effects of film thickness and alkaline concentration on the dissolution kinetics of chemically amplified resists (CARs). Films of four different thicknesses, from thick (approximately 900 nm) to thin (approximately 50 nm), were developed in 22 different developers of different concentrations. The dissolution behavior of each combination was observed using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Differences in dissolution kinetics due to film thickness were observed even between relatively thick films such as 900- and 500-nm thick films in dilute developers. These differences were considered to be caused by the diffusion of the solution into the films. Thin films also showed characteristic behavior with dilution. This behavior was due to the interaction between the substrate and the films, unlike in the case of thick films.


Author(s):  
Shuya ASADA ◽  
Akihisa OGINO

Abstract The aim of this study is to form the sulfur defects on monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) by low temperature microwave plasma treatment suppressing disturbance of molecular structure. CVD-grown and plasma treated multilayer MoS2 surface were analyzed to investigate the effects of H2 and Ar plasma treatment on sulfur defects and molecular structure. It was found that the disturbance of molecular structure was suppressed in the H2 plasma treatment compared to the Ar plasma treatment. Varying the incident ratio of hydrogen ions H+ and radicals H*, the influences of H2 plasma treatment with high and low H*/H+ ratio on monolayer MoS2 structure were discussed. As a result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence analysis, sulfur defects increased with the increase in total amount of radical incident on MoS2. In addition, it is speculated that the etching with radical contributed to form sulfur defects suppressing the disturbance of molecular structure.


Author(s):  
Yoshitaro Sakata ◽  
Nao TERASAKI

Abstract Demand for flexible electronics is increasing due to recent global movements related to IoT. In particular, the ultra-thin glass substrate can be bent, its use is expanding for various applications such as thin liquid crystal panels. On the other hand, fine-polishing techniques such as chemical mechanical polishing treatments, are important techniques in glass substrate manufacturing. However, these techniques may cause microcracks under the surface of glass substrates because they use mechanical friction. We propose a novel non-contact thermal stress-induced light-scattering method (N-SILSM) using a heating device for inspecting surfaces to detect polishing-induced microcracks. In this report, we carry out the selective detection of microcracks and tiny particles using a N-SILSM with temperature variation. Our results show that microcracks and tiny particles can be distinguished and measured by a N-SILSM utilizing temperature change, and that microcrack size can be estimated based on the change in light-scattering intensity.


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