Introduction: Anemia in pregnancy is major health issue of developing countries responsible for adverse maternal and fetal outcome. According to World health organization pregnant women with hemoglobin level less than 11 gm/dl in first trimester and less than 10.5gm/dl in second and third trimester are considered to be anemic. Iron deficiency anemia is common during pregnancy followed by megaloblastic anemia.
Aims: To find out the prevalence of anemia during pregnancy. To correlate the maternal and fetal complications associated with anemia during pregnancy.
Methods: This is a prospective hospital based study done at department of obstetrics and gynecology Nepalgunj Medical College from July 2020 to January 2021. All pregnant women with hemoglobin level <11 gm/dl were enrolled in the study. Data were collected from antenatal clinic and biochemistry laboratory.
Results: In this study maximum participants were of age group 20-25 consisting of 38.5%. Anemia was more common in multiparous i.e. 60% as compared to primipara i.e. 40%. In this study maximum participant had vaginal delivery (57%) followed by LSCS (29%) then instrumental delivery (14%). These ladies had complications like postpartum hemorrhage (27.7%), preterm labor (16.9%), pregnancy induced hypertension (9.2%). similarly 10.8% had sepsis and 20% had no complications. About 23.1% babies delivered by anemic ladies required neonatal intensive care. Intrauterine growth restriction was seen in 12.3%, preterm birth in 10.3% and 53.8% babies had no complications.
Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia during pregnancy is high leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome.
The goal of this research was to evaluate seropositivity to HSV-1 among pregnant women and its effect on the course of pregnancy, childbirth and the condition of newborns. Methods: The serological status, socio-demographic characteristics, parity of pregnancy and childbirth and condition of newborns in women seronegative and seropositive to HSV-1 with recurrent infection and its latent course during pregnancy were analyzed. Newborns from these mothers made up the corresponding groups. Results: Low titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with threatened miscarriage, anemia in pregnancy and chronic placental insufficiency. High titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the second trimester of pregnancy are associated with late miscarriages and premature births, anemia in pregnancy, chronic placental insufficiency, labor anomalies, early neonatal complications (cerebral ischemia, respiratory distress syndrome) and localized skin rashes. Low titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the third trimester of pregnancy are associated with premature birth, anemia in pregnancy, chronic placental insufficiency, endometritis, complications of the early neonatal period and localized skin rashes. Conclusions: Our research showed that low or high titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1, determined by the timing of recurrence of infection during pregnancy, are associated with a high incidence of somatic pathology and complications in pregnancy, childbirth and the neonatal period.
During pregnancy, maternal metabolism undergoes substantial changes to support the developing fetus. Such changes are finely regulated by different mechanisms carried out by effectors such as microRNAs (miRNAs). These small non-coding RNAs regulate numerous biological functions, mostly through post-transcriptional repression of gene expression. miRNAs are also secreted in circulation by numerous organs, such as the placenta. However, the complete plasmatic microtranscriptome of pregnant women has still not been fully described, although some miRNA clusters from the chromosome 14 (C14MC) and the chromosome 19 (C19MC and miR-371-3 cluster) have been proposed as being specific to pregnancy. Our aims were thus to describe the plasma microtranscriptome during the first trimester of pregnancy, by assessing the differences with non-pregnant women, and how it varies between the 4th and the 16th week of pregnancy.
Plasmatic miRNAs from 436 pregnant (gestational week 4 to 16) and 15 non-pregnant women were quantified using Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencing platform. Differentially abundant miRNAs were identified using DESeq2 package (FDR q-value ≤ 0.05) and their targeted biological pathways were assessed with DIANA-miRpath.
A total of 2101 miRNAs were detected, of which 191 were differentially abundant (fold change < 0.05 or > 2, FDR q-value ≤ 0.05) between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Of these, 100 miRNAs were less and 91 miRNAs were more abundant in pregnant women. Additionally, the abundance of 57 miRNAs varied according to gestational age at first trimester, of which 47 were positively and 10 were negatively associated with advancing gestational age. miRNAs from the C19MC were positively associated with both pregnancy and gestational age variation during the first trimester. Biological pathway analysis revealed that these 191 (pregnancy-specific) and 57 (gestational age markers) miRNAs targeted genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, ECM-receptor interaction and TGF-beta signaling pathways.
We have identified circulating miRNAs specific to pregnancy and/or that varied with gestational age in first trimester. These miRNAs target biological pathways involved in lipid metabolism as well as placenta and embryo development, suggesting a contribution to the maternal metabolic adaptation to pregnancy and fetal growth.
Objective: Amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling and first trimester combined testing are able to screen for common trisomies 13, 18, and 21 and other atypical chromosomal anomalies (ACA). The most frequent atypical aberrations reported are rare autosomal aneuploidies (RAA) and copy number variations (CNV), which are deletions or duplications of various sizes. We evaluated the clinical outcome of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results positive for RAA and large CNVs to determine the clinical significance of these abnormal results. Methods: Genome-wide NIPT was performed on 3664 eligible patient samples at a single genetics center. For patients with positive NIPT reports, the prescribing physician was asked retrospectively to provide clinical follow-up information using a standardized questionnaire. Results: RAAs and CNVs (>7 Mb) were detected in 0.5%, and 0.2% of tested cases, respectively. Follow up on pregnancies with an NIPT-positive result for RAA revealed signs of placental insufficiency or intra-uterine death in 50% of the cases and normal outcome at the time of birth in the other 50% of cases. We showed that CNV testing by NIPT allows for the detection of unbalanced translocations and relevant maternal health conditions. Conclusion: NIPT for aneuploidies of all autosomes and large CNVs of at least 7 Mb has a low “non-reportable”-rate (<0.2%) and allows the detection of additional conditions of clinical significance.
The incidence of women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing, which is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for both mother and child. Gut microbiota dysbiosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of both GDM and the accompanying risk of T2DM. Thus, a better understanding of the microbial communities associated with GDM could offer a potential target for intervention and treatment in the future. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to investigate if the GDM women have a distinct gut microbiota composition compared to non-GDM women.
We identified 21 studies in a systematic literature search of Embase and PubMed up to February 24, 2021. Data on demographics, methodology and identified microbial metrics were extracted. The quality of each study was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
Sixteen of the studies did find a GDM-associated gut microbiota, although no consistency could be seen. Only Collinsella and Blautia showed a tendency to be increased in GDM women, whereas the remaining genera were significantly different in opposing directions.
Although most of the studies found an association between GDM and gut microbiota dysbiosis, no overall GDM-specific gut microbiota could be identified. All studies in the second trimester found a difference between GDM and non-GDM women, indicating that dysbiosis is present at the time of diagnosis. Nevertheless, it is still unclear when the dysbiosis develops, as no consensus could be seen between the studies investigating the gut microbiota in the first trimester of pregnancy. However, studies varied widely concerning methodology and study design, which might explain the highly heterogeneous gut microbiota compositions between studies. Therefore, future studies need to include multiple time points and consider possible confounding factors such as ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and GDM treatment.
The definition for anemia in pregnancy is outdated, derived from Scandinavian studies in the 1970’s to 1980’s. To identity women at risk of blood transfusion, a common cause of Severe Maternal Morbidity, a standard definition of anemia in pregnancy in a modern, healthy United States cohort is needed.
To define anemia in pregnancy in a United States population including a large county vs. private hospital population using uncomplicated patients.
Materials and methods
Inclusion criteria were healthy women with the first prenatal visit before 20 weeks. Exclusion criteria included preterm birth, preeclampsia, hypertension, diabetes, short interval pregnancy (<18 months), multiple gestation, abruption, and fetal demise. All women had iron fortification (Ferrous sulfate 325 mg daily) recommended. The presentation to care and pre-delivery hematocrits were obtained, and the percentiles determined. A total of 2000 patients were included, 1000 from the public county hospital and 1000 from the private hospital. Each cohort had 250 patients in each 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018. The cohorts were compared for differences in the fifth percentile for each antepartum epoch. Student’s t-test and chi-squared statistical tests were used for analysis, p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.
In the public and private populations, 777 and 785 women presented in the first trimester while 223 and 215 presented in the second. The women at the private hospital were more likely to be older, Caucasian race, nulliparous, and present earlier to care. The fifth percentile was compared between the women in the private and public hospitals and were clinically indistinguishable. When combining the cohorts, the fifth percentile for hemoglobin/hematocrit was 11 g/dL/32.8% in the first trimester, 10.3 g/dL/30.6% in the second trimester, and 10.0 g/dL/30.2% pre-delivery.
Fifth percentile determinations were made from a combined cohort of normal, uncomplicated pregnancies to define anemia in pregnancy. Comparison of two different cohorts confirms that the same definition for anemia is appropriate regardless of demographics or patient mix.
Physical inactivity in pregnancy has been associated with excessive gestational weight gain, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus and postpartum depression. Despite these risks, physical inactivity level remains high especially in higher income countries. The prevalence of physical inactivity among women in Malaysia aged ≥16 years was 28.2% in 2019 exceeding men by 6.1%. However, little is known regarding the subpopulation of pregnant women especially in Kuala Lumpur which is the most urbanized and highly populated city in Malaysia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to measure the physical inactivity prevalence among first trimester pregnant women in Kuala Lumpur and to identify its determining factors.
This was a cross-sectional study in which 339 first trimester pregnant women were sampled from 13 maternal and child health clinics located in all four parliament districts of Kuala Lumpur. Self-administered questionnaires which contained the Malay version of the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) were used. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the physical inactivity prevalence followed by simple and multiple logistic regression to identify the determinants of physical inactivity with significant level of 5%.
The prevalence of physical inactivity was 38.3%. The highest activity was seen in the household activity domain, despite only 24.8% of the respondents were housewives/unemployed. There was little to no participation observed in the vigorous intensity category. The determinants of physical inactivity were primigravida (aOR 3.54 95% CI 1.40, 8.97), education level (aOR 3.77 95% CI 1.35, 10.52) and body mass index (aOR 0.88 95% CI 0.80, 0.97) which explained 22.6% variation of physical inactivity in the final adjusted model.
The prevalence of physical inactivity among first trimester pregnant mothers in this study was 38.3%, and the highest activity was seen in the household category. Health education on physical activity in pregnancy should be focused on those who are primigravida and have no tertiary education. The educational content should be updated and tailored to current pandemic situation where self-isolation is the new norm, by advocating for home-based, moderate to vigorous intensity physical activities.