ACM Transactions on Privacy and Security
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132
(FIVE YEARS 123)

H-INDEX

11
(FIVE YEARS 10)

Published By Association For Computing Machinery

2471-2566

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-34
Author(s):  
Handan Kılınç Alper ◽  
Alpteki̇n Küpçü

Multi-party fair exchange (MFE) and fair secure multi-party computation (fair SMPC) are under-studied fields of research, with practical importance. In particular, we consider MFE scenarios where at the end of the protocol, either every participant receives every other participant’s item, or no participant receives anything. We analyze the case where a trusted third party (TTP) is optimistically available, although we emphasize that the trust put on the TTP is only regarding the fairness , and our protocols preserve the privacy of the exchanged items against the TTP. In the fair SMPC case, we prove that a malicious TTP can only harm fairness, but not security . We construct an asymptotically optimal multi-party fair exchange protocol that requires a constant number of rounds (in comparison to linear) and O(n 2 ) messages (in comparison to cubic), where n is the number of participating parties. In our protocol, we enable the parties to efficiently exchange any item that can be efficiently put into a verifiable encryption (e.g., signatures on a contract). We show how to apply this protocol on top of any SMPC protocol to achieve fairness with very little overhead (independent of the circuit size). We then generalize our protocol to efficiently handle any exchange topology (participants exchange items with arbitrary other participants). Our protocol guarantees fairness in its strongest sense: even if all n-1 other participants are malicious and colluding with each other, the fairness is still guaranteed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Author(s):  
Stefano Berlato ◽  
Roberto Carbone ◽  
Adam J. Lee ◽  
Silvio Ranise

To facilitate the adoption of cloud by organizations, Cryptographic Access Control (CAC) is the obvious solution to control data sharing among users while preventing partially trusted Cloud Service Providers (CSP) from accessing sensitive data. Indeed, several CAC schemes have been proposed in the literature. Despite their differences, available solutions are based on a common set of entities—e.g., a data storage service or a proxy mediating the access of users to encrypted data—that operate in different (security) domains—e.g., on-premise or the CSP. However, the majority of these CAC schemes assumes a fixed assignment of entities to domains; this has security and usability implications that are not made explicit and can make inappropriate the use of a CAC scheme in certain scenarios with specific trust assumptions and requirements. For instance, assuming that the proxy runs at the premises of the organization avoids the vendor lock-in effect but may give rise to other security concerns (e.g., malicious insiders attackers). To the best of our knowledge, no previous work considers how to select the best possible architecture (i.e., the assignment of entities to domains) to deploy a CAC scheme for the trust assumptions and requirements of a given scenario. In this article, we propose a methodology to assist administrators in exploring different architectures for the enforcement of CAC schemes in a given scenario. We do this by identifying the possible architectures underlying the CAC schemes available in the literature and formalizing them in simple set theory. This allows us to reduce the problem of selecting the most suitable architectures satisfying a heterogeneous set of trust assumptions and requirements arising from the considered scenario to a decidable Multi-objective Combinatorial Optimization Problem (MOCOP) for which state-of-the-art solvers can be invoked. Finally, we show how we use the capability of solving the MOCOP to build a prototype tool assisting administrators to preliminarily perform a “What-if” analysis to explore the trade-offs among the various architectures and then use available standards and tools (such as TOSCA and Cloudify) for automated deployment in multiple CSPs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Author(s):  
Fabio Pagani ◽  
Davide Balzarotti

Despite a considerable number of approaches that have been proposed to protect computer systems, cyber-criminal activities are on the rise and forensic analysis of compromised machines and seized devices is becoming essential in computer security. This article focuses on memory forensics, a branch of digital forensics that extract artifacts from the volatile memory. In particular, this article looks at a key ingredient required by memory forensics frameworks: a precise model of the OS kernel under analysis, also known as profile . By using the information stored in the profile, memory forensics tools are able to bridge the semantic gap and interpret raw bytes to extract evidences from a memory dump. A big problem with profile-based solutions is that custom profiles must be created for each and every system under analysis. This is especially problematic for Linux systems, because profiles are not generic : they are strictly tied to a specific kernel version and to the configuration used to build the kernel. Failing to create a valid profile means that an analyst cannot unleash the true power of memory forensics and is limited to primitive carving strategies. For this reason, in this article we present a novel approach that combines source code and binary analysis techniques to automatically generate a profile from a memory dump, without relying on any non-public information. Our experiments show that this is a viable solution and that profiles reconstructed by our framework can be used to run many plugins, which are essential for a successful forensics investigation.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-33
Author(s):  
Angelo Massimo Perillo ◽  
Giuseppe Persiano ◽  
Alberto Trombetta

Performing searches over encrypted data is a very current and active area. Several efficient solutions have been provided for the single-writer scenario in which all sensitive data originate with one party (the Data Owner ) that encrypts and uploads the data to a public repository. Subsequently, the Data Owner accesses the encrypted data through a Query Processor , which has direct access to the public encrypted repository. Motivated by the recent trend in pervasive data collection, we depart from this model and consider a multi-writer scenario in which the data originate with several and mutually untrusted parties, the Data Sources . In this new scenario, the Data Owner provides public parameters so that each Data Source can add encrypted items to the public encrypted stream; moreover, the Data Owner keeps some related secret information needed to generate tokens so that different Query Sources can decrypt different subsets of the encrypted stream, as specified by corresponding access policies. We propose security model for this problem that we call Secure Selective Stream ( SSS ) and give a secure construction for it based on hard problems in Pairing-Based Cryptography. The cryptographic core of our construction is a new primitive, Amortized Orthogonality Encryption , that is crucial for the efficiency of the proposed implementation for SSS .


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Author(s):  
Le Qin ◽  
Fei Peng ◽  
Min Long ◽  
Raghavendra Ramachandra ◽  
Christoph Busch

As face presentation attacks (PAs) are realistic threats for unattended face verification systems, face presentation attack detection (PAD) has been intensively investigated in past years, and the recent advances in face PAD have significantly reduced the success rate of such attacks. In this article, an empirical study on a novel and effective face impostor PA is made. In the proposed PA, a facial artifact is created by using the most vulnerable facial components, which are optimally selected based on the vulnerability analysis of different facial components to impostor PAs. An attacker can launch a face PA by presenting a facial artifact on his or her own real face. With a collected PA database containing various types of artifacts and presentation attack instruments (PAIs), the experimental results and analysis show that the proposed PA poses a more serious threat to face verification and PAD systems compared with the print, replay, and mask PAs. Moreover, the generalization ability of the proposed PA and the vulnerability analysis with regard to commercial systems are also investigated by evaluating unknown face verification and real-world PAD systems. It provides a new paradigm for the study of face PAs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Author(s):  
Sibghat Ullah Bazai ◽  
Julian Jang-Jaccard ◽  
Hooman Alavizadeh

Multi-dimensional data anonymization approaches (e.g., Mondrian) ensure more fine-grained data privacy by providing a different anonymization strategy applied for each attribute. Many variations of multi-dimensional anonymization have been implemented on different distributed processing platforms (e.g., MapReduce, Spark) to take advantage of their scalability and parallelism supports. According to our critical analysis on overheads, either existing iteration-based or recursion-based approaches do not provide effective mechanisms for creating the optimal number of and relative size of resilient distributed datasets (RDDs), thus heavily suffer from performance overheads. To solve this issue, we propose a novel hybrid approach for effectively implementing a multi-dimensional data anonymization strategy (e.g., Mondrian) that is scalable and provides high-performance. Our hybrid approach provides a mechanism to create far fewer RDDs and smaller size partitions attached to each RDD than existing approaches. This optimal RDD creation and operations approach is critical for many multi-dimensional data anonymization applications that create tremendous execution complexity. The new mechanism in our proposed hybrid approach can dramatically reduce the critical overheads involved in re-computation cost, shuffle operations, message exchange, and cache management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Author(s):  
Savvas Savvides ◽  
Seema Kumar ◽  
Julian James Stephen ◽  
Patrick Eugster

With the advent of the Internet of things (IoT), billions of devices are expected to continuously collect and process sensitive data (e.g., location, personal health factors). Due to the limited computational capacity available on IoT devices, the current de facto model for building IoT applications is to send the gathered data to the cloud for computation. While building private cloud infrastructures for handling large amounts of data streams can be expensive, using low-cost public (untrusted) cloud infrastructures for processing continuous queries including sensitive data leads to strong concerns over data confidentiality. This article presents C3PO, a confidentiality-preserving, continuous query processing engine, that leverages the public cloud. The key idea is to intelligently utilize partially homomorphic and property-preserving encryption to perform as many computationally intensive operations as possible—without revealing plaintext—in the untrusted cloud. C3PO provides simple abstractions to the developer to hide the complexities of applying complex cryptographic primitives, reasoning about the performance of such primitives, deciding which computations can be executed in an untrusted tier, and optimizing cloud resource usage. An empirical evaluation with several benchmarks and case studies shows the feasibility of our approach. We consider different classes of IoT devices that differ in their computational and memory resources (from a Raspberry Pi 3 to a very small device with a Cortex-M3 microprocessor) and through the use of optimizations, we demonstrate the feasibility of using partially homomorphic and property-preserving encryption on IoT devices.


2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Author(s):  
Sana Maqsood ◽  
Sonia Chiasson

Tweens are avid users of digital media, which exposes them to various online threats. Teachers are primarily expected to teach children safe online behaviours, despite not necessarily having the required training or classroom tools to support this education. Using the theory of procedural rhetoric and established game design principles, we designed a classroom-based cybersecurity, privacy, and digital literacy game for tweens that has since been deployed to over 300 Canadian elementary schools. The game, A Day in the Life of the JOs , teaches children about 25 cybersecurity, privacy, and digital literacy topics and allows them to practice what they have learned in a simulated environment. We employed a user-centered design process to create the game, iteratively testing its design and effectiveness with children and teachers through five user studies (with a total of 63 child participants and 21 teachers). Our summative evaluation with children showed that the game improved their cybersecurity, privacy, and digital literacy knowledge and behavioural intent and was positively received by them. Our summative evaluation with teachers also showed positive results. Teachers liked that the game represented the authentic experiences of children on digital media and that it aligned with their curriculum requirements; they were interested in using it in their classrooms. In this article, we discuss our process and experience of designing a production quality game for children and provide evidence of its effectiveness with both children and teachers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Author(s):  
Sarah C. Helble ◽  
Ian D. Kretz ◽  
Peter A. Loscocco ◽  
John D. Ramsdell ◽  
Paul D. Rowe ◽  
...  

Remote attestation consists of generating evidence of a system’s integrity via measurements and reporting the evidence to a remote party for appraisal in a form that can be trusted. The parties that exchange information must agree on formats and protocols. We assert there is a large variety of patterns of interactions among appraisers and attesters of interest. Therefore, it is important to standardize on flexible mechanisms for remote attestation. We make our case by describing scenarios that require the exchange of evidence among multiple parties using a variety of message passing patterns. We show cases in which changes in the order of evidence collection result in important differences to what can be inferred by an appraiser. We argue that adding the ability to negotiate the appropriate kind of attestation allows for remote attestations that better adapt to a dynamically changing environment. Finally, we suggest a language-based solution to taming the complexity of specifying and negotiating attestation procedures.


2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Author(s):  
Abbas Acar ◽  
Shoukat Ali ◽  
Koray Karabina ◽  
Cengiz Kaygusuz ◽  
Hidayet Aksu ◽  
...  

As many vulnerabilities of one-time authentication systems have already been uncovered, there is a growing need and trend to adopt continuous authentication systems. Biometrics provides an excellent means for periodic verification of the authenticated users without breaking the continuity of a session. Nevertheless, as attacks to computing systems increase, biometric systems demand more user information in their operations, yielding privacy issues for users in biometric-based continuous authentication systems. However, the current state-of-the-art privacy technologies are not viable or costly for the continuous authentication systems, which require periodic real-time verification. In this article, we introduce a novel, lightweight, <underline>p</underline>rivacy-<underline>a</underline>ware, and secure <underline>c</underline>ontinuous <underline>a</underline>uthentication protocol called PACA. PACA is initiated through a password-based key exchange (PAKE) mechanism, and it continuously authenticates users based on their biometrics in a privacy-aware manner. Then, we design an actual continuous user authentication system under the proposed protocol. In this concrete system, we utilize a privacy-aware template matching technique and a wearable-assisted keystroke dynamics-based continuous authentication method. This provides privacy guarantees without relying on any trusted third party while allowing the comparison of noisy user inputs (due to biometric data) and yielding an efficient and lightweight protocol. Finally, we implement our system on an Apple smartwatch and perform experiments with real user data to evaluate the accuracy and resource consumption of our concrete system.


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