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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-11
Sudhakar Sengan ◽  
Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf ◽  
Priyadarsini S. ◽  
Dilip Kumar Sharma ◽  
Amarendra K. ◽  

This paper aims to improve the protection of two-wheelers. This study is divided into two parts: a helmet unit and a vehicle unit. The primary unit is the helmet unit, which contains a sensor, and the second part is known as the alcohol sensor, which is used to determine whether or not the driver is wearing the user helmet correctly. This data is then transmitted to the vehicle unit via the RF transmitter. The data is encoded with the aid of an encoder. Suppose the alcohol sensor senses that the driver is intoxicated. In that case, the IoT-based Raspberry Pi micro-controller passes the data to the vehicle unit via the RF transmitter, which immediately stops the vehicle from using the Driver circuit to control the relay. To stop the consumption of alcohol, the vehicles would be tracked daily. If the individual driving the vehicle is under the influence of alcohol while driving, the buzzer will automatically trigger. The vehicle key will be switched off.

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Savvas Savvides ◽  
Seema Kumar ◽  
Julian James Stephen ◽  
Patrick Eugster

With the advent of the Internet of things (IoT), billions of devices are expected to continuously collect and process sensitive data (e.g., location, personal health factors). Due to the limited computational capacity available on IoT devices, the current de facto model for building IoT applications is to send the gathered data to the cloud for computation. While building private cloud infrastructures for handling large amounts of data streams can be expensive, using low-cost public (untrusted) cloud infrastructures for processing continuous queries including sensitive data leads to strong concerns over data confidentiality. This article presents C3PO, a confidentiality-preserving, continuous query processing engine, that leverages the public cloud. The key idea is to intelligently utilize partially homomorphic and property-preserving encryption to perform as many computationally intensive operations as possible—without revealing plaintext—in the untrusted cloud. C3PO provides simple abstractions to the developer to hide the complexities of applying complex cryptographic primitives, reasoning about the performance of such primitives, deciding which computations can be executed in an untrusted tier, and optimizing cloud resource usage. An empirical evaluation with several benchmarks and case studies shows the feasibility of our approach. We consider different classes of IoT devices that differ in their computational and memory resources (from a Raspberry Pi 3 to a very small device with a Cortex-M3 microprocessor) and through the use of optimizations, we demonstrate the feasibility of using partially homomorphic and property-preserving encryption on IoT devices.

Nurshahrily Idura Ramli ◽  
Mohd Izani Mohamed Rawi ◽  
Fatin Nur Nabila Rebuan

Today, in the realm of Industry 4.0, vastly diverse Internet of Things (IoT) technology are integrated everywhere, not to mention included in academic programs in schools and universities. Domain ratio of the final year projects in Universiti Teknologi Mara exposes a staggering hype in IoT as compared to other domains despite not having IoT included in any of the courses. Meanwhile, to fulfill the needs of the student in exploring this technology, an integrated IoT learning platform is developed. It integrates an IoT smart home model and a web-based interface as a learning platform to inspire hands-on learning for the students. The raspberry pi, motion sensor, analog gas sensor, atmospheric sensor, ultrasonic proximity sensor, and rain detector sensor are integrated together in a Lego-built smart home model where its connectivity and readings are displayed in a simple web interface to enable and inspire learning. A manual to set up the entire model is also prepared as a guide for students to set up and further explore the functionalities and operabilities of “things”.

Ida Syafiza Binti Md Isa ◽  
Choy Ja Yeong ◽  
Nur Latif Azyze bin Mohd Shaari Azyze

Nowadays, the number of road accident in Malaysia is increasing expeditiously. One of the ways to reduce the number of road accident is through the development of the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) by professional engineers. Several ADAS system has been proposed by taking into consideration the delay tolerance and the accuracy of the system itself. In this work, a traffic sign recognition system has been developed to increase the safety of the road users by installing the system inside the car for driver’s awareness. TensorFlow algorithm has been considered in this work for object recognition through machine learning due to its high accuracy. The algorithm is embedded in the Raspberry Pi 3 for processing and analysis to detect the traffic sign from the real-time video recording from Raspberry Pi camera NoIR. This work aims to study the accuracy, delay and reliability of the developed system using a Raspberry Pi 3 processor considering several scenarios related to the state of the environment and the condition of the traffic signs. A real-time testbed implementation has been conducted considering twenty different traffic signs and the results show that the system has more than 90% accuracy and is reliable with an acceptable delay.

Bilal Asaad Mubdir ◽  
Hassan Mohammed Ali Bayram

<span>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) altered the way of caregiving and the new pandemic forced the health systems to adopt new treatment protocols in which remote follow-up is essential. This paper introduces a proposed system to link a remote healthcare unit as it is inside the hospital. Two different network protocols; a global system for mobile communication (GSM) and Wi-Fi were used to simulate the heath data transfer from the two different geographical locations, using Raspberry Pi development board and Microcontroller units. Message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) protocol was employed to transfer the measured data from the healthcare unit to the hospital’s Gateway. The gateway is used to route the aggregated health data from healthcare units to the hospital server, doctors’ dashboards, and the further processing. The system was successfully implemented and tested, where the experimental tests show that the remote healthcare units using a GSM network consumed about 900 mWh. A high percentage of success data packets transfer was recorded within the network framework as it reaches 99.89% with an average round trip time (RTT) of 7.5 milliseconds and a data transfer rate up to 12.3 kbps.</span>

Jung kyu Park

<pre>There are several differences between the two types of alarm systems, conventional systems and addressable systems. It is important to carefully determine the introduction of a fire alarm system according to the installation environment. Talking about the main difference relates to how the connected device communicates with the main control panel by sending a signal. Cost is another factor that can be a determinant of your chosen fire alarm system. In this paper, we proposed smart addressable fire detection system. In the proposed system, <span>IoT</span> was used and the network was constructed using <span>ZigBee</span> module. In the configured network, it consists of a local server and a control server. The local server controls the addressing sensor and sends the information obtained from the sensor to the control server. The control server receives data transmitted from the local server and enables quick fire action. In the actual implementation, the local server used the Lycra controller and <span>ZigBee</span> module. In addition, the control server used the Raspberry Pi and <span>ZigBee</span> modules and connected to the Ethernet so that the administrator could monitor or control the local server.</pre>

Krunal A Moharkar

Abstract: Today’s technology has been evolved into stand-alone systems which can do all necessary processes by themselves without any additional hardware. Advance microcontrollers have become microcomputers that are also known as single board computers. These systems take their power from powerful microcontrollers. These microcontrollers have many integrated circuits on board so they can achieve many different processes by themselves. They are being used in many applications from powerful industrial devices to simple home appliances. In today’s market, there are many different microcontrollers with different structure and capabilities. Therefore, understanding the concepts related to the microcontrollers is really important for choosing the best hardware. This paper presents the main concepts of microcontrollers and reveals the basis of their structure. Their components and abilities have been discussed and a comparison of well-known single board computers has been given. Keywords: Microcontrollers, Integrated Circuits, Arduino UNO, Raspberry PI, BeagleBone Black, ESP8266.

Prof. Kalpana Malpe

Abstract: In recent years, the safety constitutes the foremost necessary section of the human life. At this point, the price is that the greatest issue. This technique is incredibly helpful for reducing the price of watching the movement from outside. During this paper, a period of time recognition system is planned which will equip for handling pictures terribly quickly. The most objective of this paper is to safeguard home, workplace by recognizing individuals. The face is that the foremost distinctivea part of human’s body. So, it will replicate several emotions of associate degree Expression. A few years past, humans were mistreatment the non-living things like good cards, plastic cards, PINS, tokens and keys for authentication, and to urge grant access in restricted areas like ISRO, National Aeronautics and Space Administration and DRDO. The most necessary options of the face image are Eyes, Nose and mouth. Face detection and recognition system is simpler, cheaper, a lot of accurate, process. The system under two categories one is face detection and face recognition. Throughout this case, among the paper, the Raspberry Pi single-board computer is also a heart of the embedded face recognition system. Keywords: Raspberry Pi, Face recognition system

Computers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Imran Zualkernan ◽  
Salam Dhou ◽  
Jacky Judas ◽  
Ali Reza Sajun ◽  
Brylle Ryan Gomez ◽  

Camera traps deployed in remote locations provide an effective method for ecologists to monitor and study wildlife in a non-invasive way. However, current camera traps suffer from two problems. First, the images are manually classified and counted, which is expensive. Second, due to manual coding, the results are often stale by the time they get to the ecologists. Using the Internet of Things (IoT) combined with deep learning represents a good solution for both these problems, as the images can be classified automatically, and the results immediately made available to ecologists. This paper proposes an IoT architecture that uses deep learning on edge devices to convey animal classification results to a mobile app using the LoRaWAN low-power, wide-area network. The primary goal of the proposed approach is to reduce the cost of the wildlife monitoring process for ecologists, and to provide real-time animal sightings data from the camera traps in the field. Camera trap image data consisting of 66,400 images were used to train the InceptionV3, MobileNetV2, ResNet18, EfficientNetB1, DenseNet121, and Xception neural network models. While performance of the trained models was statistically different (Kruskal–Wallis: Accuracy H(5) = 22.34, p < 0.05; F1-score H(5) = 13.82, p = 0.0168), there was only a 3% difference in the F1-score between the worst (MobileNet V2) and the best model (Xception). Moreover, the models made similar errors (Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) > 0.88 and Adjusted Mutual Information (AMU) > 0.82). Subsequently, the best model, Xception (Accuracy = 96.1%; F1-score = 0.87; F1-Score = 0.97 with oversampling), was optimized and deployed on the Raspberry Pi, Google Coral, and Nvidia Jetson edge devices using both TenorFlow Lite and TensorRT frameworks. Optimizing the models to run on edge devices reduced the average macro F1-Score to 0.7, and adversely affected the minority classes, reducing their F1-score to as low as 0.18. Upon stress testing, by processing 1000 images consecutively, Jetson Nano, running a TensorRT model, outperformed others with a latency of 0.276 s/image (s.d. = 0.002) while consuming an average current of 1665.21 mA. Raspberry Pi consumed the least average current (838.99 mA) with a ten times worse latency of 2.83 s/image (s.d. = 0.036). Nano was the only reasonable option as an edge device because it could capture most animals whose maximum speeds were below 80 km/h, including goats, lions, ostriches, etc. While the proposed architecture is viable, unbalanced data remain a challenge and the results can potentially be improved by using object detection to reduce imbalances and by exploring semi-supervised learning.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 564
Giacomo Chiesa ◽  
Andrea Avignone ◽  
Tommaso Carluccio

Smart building issues are critical for current energy and comfort managing aspects in built environments. Nevertheless, the diffusion of smart monitoring solutions via user-friendly graphical interfaces is still an ongoing issue subject to the need to diffuse a smart building culture and a low-cost series of solutions. This paper proposes a new low-cost IoT sensor network, exploiting Raspberry Pi and Arduino platforms, for collecting real-time data and evaluating specific thermal comfort indicators (PMV and PPD). The overall architecture was accordingly designed, including the hardware setup, the back-end and the Android user interface. Eventually, three distinct prototyping platforms were deployed for initial testing of the general system, and we analysed the obtained results for different building typologies and seasonal periods, based on collected data and users’ preferences. This work is part of a large educational and citizen science activity.

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