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Author(s):  
Xurramov Eshmamat Xudoyberdiyevich

Annotation: Investments are made in any socio-economic formations. Because they are spent on strengthening the state, the industry, enterprises, and, finally, the economic base of the population. It is an objective necessity to invest in the development of agriculture in the Republic of Uzbekistan, where a free market economy is gradually being formed. In this article, we will learn about investment and capital investment in agriculture and how to increase their efficiency. Keywords: investments, population, efficiency, capital investments.


Author(s):  
Aman Sharma

Abstract: The wollastonite mineral are the main source of solid-state reaction from limestone and silica sand. Wollastonite is used as replacement of both sand and cement depending on size of wollastonite. Present study will provide better understanding of mechanical and durability properties of concrete in which cement is partially replaced with wollastonite. The present paper would contribute to the efforts being made in the field of concrete technology towards development of concretes possessing good strength and durability properties along with economic and ecological advantage. Based on the study, valuable advice will be given for concrete structures. It was found that with increase in amount of wollastonite, in concrete with workability of concrete decreases. It was also found that initial day’s strength is less for wollastonite concrete compare to control mix, but as the age increases they show good improvement in strength due to pozzalanic reaction. Optimum dosage is observed to be 15% WP which shows more strength compared to control mix. Keywords: wollastonite mineral, workability, compressive strength, split tensile strength.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Haiyong Peng

Abstract Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) are targeted therapeutics generated by conjugation of cytotoxic small molecules to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) via chemical linkers. Due to their selective delivery of toxic payloads to antigen-positive cancer cells, ADCs demonstrate wider therapeutic indexes compared to conventional chemotherapy. After decades of intensive research and development, significant advances have been made in the field, leading to a total of ten FDA-approved ADCs to treat cancer patients. Currently, ~ 80 ADCs targeting different antigens are under clinical evaluation for treatment of either hematological or solid malignancies. Notably, 3 ADCs targeting the same oncofetal protein, ROR1, have attracted considerable attention when they were acquired or licensed successively in the fourth quarter of 2020 by 3 major pharmaceutical companies. Apparently, ROR1 has emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapy. Since all the components of ADCs, including the antibody, linker, and payload, as well as the conjugation method, play critical roles in ADC’s efficacy and performance, their choice and combination will determine how far they can be advanced. This review summarizes the design and development of current anti-ROR1 ADCs and highlights an emerging trend to target ROR1 for cancer therapy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah K. Richman ◽  
Jessica L. Barker ◽  
Minjung Baek ◽  
Daniel R. Papaj ◽  
Rebecca E. Irwin ◽  
...  

Animals foraging from flowers must assess their environment and make critical decisions about which patches, plants, and flowers to exploit to obtain limiting resources. The cognitive ecology of plant-pollinator interactions explores not only the complex nature of pollinator foraging behavior and decision making, but also how cognition shapes pollination and plant fitness. Floral visitors sometimes depart from what we think of as typical pollinator behavior and instead exploit floral resources by robbing nectar (bypassing the floral opening and instead consuming nectar through holes or perforations made in floral tissue). The impacts of nectar robbing on plant fitness are well-studied; however, there is considerably less understanding, from the animal’s perspective, about the cognitive processes underlying nectar robbing. Examining nectar robbing from the standpoint of animal cognition is important for understanding the evolution of this behavior and its ecological and evolutionary consequences. In this review, we draw on central concepts of foraging ecology and animal cognition to consider nectar robbing behavior either when individuals use robbing as their only foraging strategy or when they switch between robbing and legitimate foraging. We discuss sensory and cognitive biases, learning, and the role of a variable environment in making decisions about robbing vs. foraging legitimately. We also discuss ways in which an understanding of the cognitive processes involved in nectar robbing can address questions about how plant-robber interactions affect patterns of natural selection and floral evolution. We conclude by highlighting future research directions on the sensory and cognitive ecology of nectar robbing.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (3) ◽  
pp. 153-162
Author(s):  
Gayatri Gawade ◽  
Sameer A Chaudhary ◽  
Sapana Chaudhary ◽  
Sakshi Rawat ◽  
Anwar L Bilgrami ◽  
...  

Despite the various advances made in the diagnosis and treatments, the incidence of the neurodegenerative diseases has increased manifold during the last few decades. The inadequate early diagnosis appears to be the main reason behind the significant increase in the number of neurodegenerative diseases and their poor prognosis. Next generation sequencing has been discovered as an effective and indicative tool, especially for chronic and severe neurological illnesses, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer. As a clinical apparatus, next generation sequencing will help in creating explicit hereditary focuses for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and finding new diagnostic biomarkers. Next-generation sequencing has been demonstrated to be increasingly productive, practical and utilizes molecular determination, which determines biomarkers and different targets quicker and efficiently than the other established diagnostic methods. There is a desperate requirement to change the current treatment and medication regimes in order to make better prognosis for the patients. This can be accomplished by utilizing customized drug to treat neurodegenerative diseases and using next generation sequencing with personal medicine as the method for specialized treatment of the patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders.


Author(s):  
Svetlana Dabic-Miletic ◽  
Vladimir Simic ◽  
Selman Karagoz

AbstractEnvironmental and social awareness are the key elements of the sustainable tire industry. End-of-life tire (ELT) waste flow is an important environmental problem worldwide since it produces severe air, water, and soil pollution issues. Significant advancements have been made in ELT management in the last few years. As a result, ELTs should not only be regarded as waste but also as a source of environmentally friendly materials. Besides, sound ELT management has vital importance for circular economy and sustainable development. Over the last decade, ELT management has attracted many researchers and practitioners. Unfortunately, a comprehensive review of the ELT management area is still missing. This study presents the first critical review of the whole ELT management area. It aims to present an extensive content analysis overview of state-of-the-art research, provide its critical analysis, highlight major gaps, and propose the most significant research directions. A total of 151 peer-reviewed studies published in the journals between 2010–2020 are collected, analyzed, categorized, and critically reviewed. This review study redounds comprehensive insights, a valuable source of references, and major opportunities for researchers and practitioners interested in not only ELT material flow but also the whole waste management area. Graphical abstract


2021 ◽  
pp. 56-64
Author(s):  
V. B. Aleksandrov

The article justifies the provision that reputational management passes by problems related to the personal meanings of a subject conducting a specific professional activity. It is shown that the category of honor is of particular importance for the expression of this issue. Professional honor in decision-making involves bringing to the fore not the desire to preserve a reputation, but the attitude to preserve personal dignity, accompanied by the willingness to take responsibility for decisions made in critical situations. This willingness is rooted in the fundamental worldviews of the personality that shape its orientation. It is noted that professional honor is a much stronger motivating factor than the desire to maintain a reputation, it determines the attitude to the profession, the desire and willingness to improve in it.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rebecca Grzadzinski ◽  
Dima Amso ◽  
Rebecca Landa ◽  
Linda Watson ◽  
Michael Guralnick ◽  
...  

AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) impacts an individual’s ability to socialize, communicate, and interact with, and adapt to, the environment. Over the last two decades, research has focused on early identification of ASD with significant progress being made in understanding the early behavioral and biological markers that precede a diagnosis, providing a catalyst for pre-symptomatic identification and intervention. Evidence from preclinical trials suggest that intervention prior to the onset of ASD symptoms may yield more improved developmental outcomes, and clinical studies suggest that the earlier intervention is administered, the better the outcomes. This article brings together a multidisciplinary group of experts to develop a conceptual framework for behavioral intervention, during the pre-symptomatic period prior to the consolidation of symptoms into diagnosis, in infants at very-high-likelihood for developing ASD (VHL-ASD). The overarching goals of this paper are to promote the development of new intervention approaches, empirical research, and policy efforts aimed at VHL-ASD infants during the pre-symptomatic period (i.e., prior to the consolidation of the defining features of ASD).


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Miaomiao He ◽  
Jie Qiu ◽  
Yang Bai ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Mei Hu ◽  
...  

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an inherited cardiovascular disease, and 70% of patients have left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Ventricular septal myectomy has been the gold standard treatment for most patients with refractory symptoms. Due to higher mortality associated with medical facilities with less experience, alcohol septal ablation has been accepted as an alternative to conventional surgical myectomy. It offers lower all-cause in-hospital complications and mortality, which could be potentially more preferable for patients with serious comorbidities. In recent years, radiofrequency ablation, providing another option with reproducibility and a low risk of permanent atrioventricular block, has become an effective invasive treatment to relieve left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Moreover, substantial progress has been made in gene therapy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The principal objective of this review is to present recent advances in non-pharmaceutical interventions in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (20) ◽  
pp. 15409-15430
Author(s):  
Nathaniel J. Livesey ◽  
William G. Read ◽  
Lucien Froidevaux ◽  
Alyn Lambert ◽  
Michelle L. Santee ◽  
...  

Abstract. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), launched on NASA's Aura spacecraft in 2004, measures vertical profiles of the abundances of key atmospheric species from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere with daily near-global coverage. We review the first 15 years of the record of H2O and N2O measurements from the MLS 190 GHz subsystem (along with other 190 GHz information), with a focus on their long-term stability, largely based on comparisons with measurements from other sensors. These comparisons generally show signs of an increasing drift in the MLS “version 4” (v4) H2O record starting around 2010. Specifically, comparisons with v4.1 measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) indicate a ∼ 2 %–3 % per decade drift over much of the stratosphere, increasing to as much as ∼ 7 % per decade around 46 hPa. Larger drifts, of around 7 %–11 % per decade, are seen in comparisons to balloon-borne frost point hygrometer measurements in the lower stratosphere. Microphysical calculations considering the formation of polar stratospheric clouds in the Antarctic winter stratosphere corroborate a drift in MLS v4 water vapor measurements in that region and season. In contrast, comparisons with the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission, and with ground-based Water Vapor Millimeter-wave Spectrometer (WVMS) instruments, do not show statistically significant drifts. However, the uncertainty in these comparisons is large enough to encompass most of the drifts identified in other comparisons. In parallel, the MLS v4 N2O product is shown to be generally decreasing over the same period (when an increase in stratospheric N2O is expected, reflecting a secular growth in emissions), with a more pronounced drift in the lower stratosphere than that found for H2O. Comparisons to ACE-FTS and to MLS N2O observations in a different spectral region, with the latter available from 2004 to 2013, indicate an altitude-dependent drift, growing from 5 % per decade or less in the mid-stratosphere to as much as 15 % per decade in the lower stratosphere. Detailed investigations of the behavior of the MLS 190 GHz subsystem reveal a drift in its “sideband fraction” (the relative sensitivity of the 190 GHz receiver to the two different parts of the microwave spectrum that it observes). Our studies indicate that sideband fraction drift accounts for much of the observed changes in the MLS H2O product and some portion of the changes seen in N2O. The 190 GHz sideband fraction drift has been corrected in the new “version 5” (v5) MLS algorithms, which have now been used to reprocess the entire MLS record. As a result of this correction, the MLS v5 H2O record shows no statistically significant drifts compared to ACE-FTS. However, statistically significant drifts remain between MLS v5 and frost point measurements, although they are reduced. Drifts in v5 N2O are about half the size of those in v4 but remain statistically significant. Scientists are advised to use MLS v5 data in all future studies. Quantification of interregional and seasonal to annual changes in MLS H2O and N2O will not be affected by the drift. However, caution is advised in studies using the MLS record to examine long-term (multiyear) variability and trends in either of these species, especially N2O; such studies should only be undertaken in consultation with the MLS team. Importantly, this drift does not affect any of the MLS observations made in other spectral regions such as O3, HCl, CO, ClO, or temperature.


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