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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (OOPSLA) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Author(s):  
Xiang Gao ◽  
Arjun Radhakrishna ◽  
Gustavo Soares ◽  
Ridwan Shariffdeen ◽  
Sumit Gulwani ◽  
...  

Use of third-party libraries is extremely common in application software. The libraries evolve to accommodate new features or mitigate security vulnerabilities, thereby breaking the Application Programming Interface(API) used by the software. Such breaking changes in the libraries may discourage client code from using the new library versions thereby keeping the application vulnerable and not up-to-date. We propose a novel output-oriented program synthesis algorithm to automate API usage adaptations via program transformation. Our aim is not only to rely on the few example human adaptations of the clients from the old library version to the new library version, since this can lead to over-fitting transformation rules. Instead, we also rely on example usages of the new updated library in clients, which provide valuable context for synthesizing and applying the transformation rules. Our tool APIFix provides an automated mechanism to transform application code using the old library versions to code using the new library versions - thereby achieving automated API usage adaptation to fix the effect of breaking changes. Our evaluation shows that the transformation rules inferred by APIFix achieve 98.7% precision and 91.5% recall. By comparing our approach to state-of-the-art program synthesis approaches, we show that our approach significantly reduces over-fitting while synthesizing transformation rules for API usage adaptations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (OOPSLA) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Author(s):  
Malte Viering ◽  
Raymond Hu ◽  
Patrick Eugster ◽  
Lukasz Ziarek

This paper presents a formulation of multiparty session types (MPSTs) for practical fault-tolerant distributed programming. We tackle the challenges faced by session types in the context of distributed systems involving asynchronous and concurrent partial failures – such as supporting dynamic replacement of failed parties and retrying failed protocol segments in an ongoing multiparty session – in the presence of unreliable failure detection. Key to our approach is that we develop a novel model of event-driven concurrency for multiparty sessions. Inspired by real-world practices, it enables us to unify the session-typed handling of regular I/O events with failure handling and the combination of features needed to express practical fault-tolerant protocols. Moreover, the characteristics of our model allow us to prove a global progress property for well-typed processes engaged in multiple concurrent sessions, which does not hold in traditional MPST systems. To demonstrate its practicality, we implement our framework as a toolchain and runtime for Scala, and use it to specify and implement a session-typed version of the cluster management system of the industrial-strength Apache Spark data analytics framework. Our session-typed cluster manager composes with other vanilla Spark components to give a functioning Spark runtime; e.g., it can execute existing third-party Spark applications without code modification. A performance evaluation using the TPC-H benchmark shows our prototype implementation incurs an average overhead below 10%.


2021 ◽  
pp. 147737082110372
Author(s):  
Scott Jacques ◽  
Bruce A. Jacobs

This article examines the concept of proterrence: scaring people into doing something to stop others from doing something bad. This contrasts to deterrence, which involves threatening persons to not do something bad. The tobacco ban in Amsterdam coffeeshops and, more specifically, coffeeshop personnel's reaction to it is used as the empirical vessel to examine proterrence. Proterrence permits examination of the interface between order maintenance and social control against a backdrop of perceived sanction illegitimacy. It also permits exploration of the process by which formal sanctions thread through informal mechanisms—where that threading is enforcement rather than consequence-based and where rule implementers face the brunt of the sanction that a third party violates. Data are based on in-depth fieldwork in Amsterdam coffeeshops. The wider applicability of proterrence is discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 11357
Author(s):  
Kai Liu ◽  
Chunfa Li ◽  
Runde Gu

With the continuous development of e-commerce, it has become normal for the manufacturer to sell products and to collect used products through e-commerce platforms (platform for short). We consider an electronic closed-loop supply chain (E-CLSC) where we composed a manufacturer with remanufacturing capability and a platform that can provide logistics services. The purpose of this paper is to address whether the manufacturer should directly collect used products from the consumer under the platform. Specifically, we have developed four game models, namely model N (no collection), model M (the manufacturer collects), model E (the platform collects), and model T (the third-party collects) and derived the optimal pricing decisions, logistics service level, and collection rate for E-CLSC members. We found that remanufacturing used products is conducive to increasing the profits of the manufacturer and the platform as well as to increasing the utility of the consumer. Under the same conditions, for the manufacturer, the platform, and the consumer, the optimal choice is that the manufacturer directly collects the used products from the consumer. If the manufacturer is unable to establish an effective collection channel, he should consider outsourcing to a contractor and should consider the platform to be under the same conditions. Numerical examples are also given to verify the proposed results.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 183-196
Author(s):  
Lantip Susilowati ◽  
Nita Sistiani

The purpose of this research is to show the differences in financing between Bank Mandiri and Bank Syariah Mandiri; the effect of the inflation rate on financing; the influence of the BI-7 day repo rate on financing; the influence of the number of third party funds on financing; the effect of the statutory reserve requirement on financing. This research uses a quantitative approach with associative and comparative types of research. The sampling technique used was the purposive sampling method. The test uses a hypothesis test and an independent sample test to compare the financial performance of the two banks. The results showed that the inflation rate, BI-7 day repo rate, and the minimum reserve requirement had no effect on financing at Bank Mandiri and Bank Syariah Mandiri. While third-party funds partially have a positive and significant effect on financing at Bank Mandiri and Bank Syariah Mandiri. There is a significant difference between financing between Bank Mandiri and Bank Syariah Mandiri. This research can provide input for Islamic banking, especially Bank Mandiri and Bank Syariah Mandiri, in determining profit-sharing financing policies.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Laura Anderson

<p>Both adults and children accurately and efficiently predict what other people know, despite interacting with a diverse range of individuals who each have different knowledge sets. To reduce the cognitive cost of predicting each individual’s knowledge, there is evidence that we use heuristics to make generalisable predictions about the way specific kinds of knowledge are shared with others. Yet, little research examines the function of a knowledge prediction heuristic, the input needed to produce accurate knowledge predictions, or changes across development. I propose that children use a heuristic to predict others’ knowledge, and that this heuristic functions by considering the type of knowledge being predicted, and characteristics of the individual whose knowledge is being predicted. Chapter 2 demonstrates that 3- to 6-year-old children accurately and selectively predict who shares different pieces of their knowledge. Children also predict knowledge accurately in a third-party task, providing evidence for the use of a generalisable heuristic rather than simple associations or personal experience. Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 demonstrate knowledge overestimation errors, predicted by the heuristic I propose. 4-year-olds, but not 6-year-olds, overattribute knowledge to others if the knowledge item being predicted is an example of a cultural knowledge item (typically shared with strangers from the same social groups). Yet, even 4-year-olds do not make this over-attribution error when predicting an example of a typically episodic knowledge item (not typically shared with any strangers). Chapter 4 provides initial evidence that feelings of closeness or shared episodic knowledge with a partner (but not simply shared group membership) decrease 4- and 6-year-olds consideration of this partner’s perspective. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for an early-emerging knowledge prediction heuristic which considers the type of knowledge being predicted and characteristics of the individual whose knowledge is being predicted to facilitate accurate yet efficient knowledge predictions.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jie Huang ◽  
Zhi-Sheng Liang ◽  
Stefano Pallotti ◽  
Janice Ranson ◽  
David J Llewellyn ◽  
...  

GWASs have identified numerous genetic variants associated with a wide variety of diseases, yet despite the wide availability of genetic testing the insights that would enhance the interpretability of these results are not widely available to members of the public. As a proof of concept and demonstration of technological feasibility, we developed PAGEANT (Personal Access to Genome & Analysis of Natural Traits), usable through Graphical User Interface or command line-based version, aiming to serve as a protocol and prototype that guides the overarching design of genetic reporting tools. PAGEANT is structured across five core modules, summarized by five Qs: (1) Quality assurance of the genetic data; (2) Qualitative assessment of genetic characteristics; (3) Quantitative assessment of health risk susceptibility based on polygenic risk scores and population reference; (4) Query of third-party variant databases (e.g., ClinVAR and PharmGKB); and (5) Quick Response code of genetic variants of interest. Literature review was conducted to compare PAGEANT with academic and industry tools. For 2,504 genomes made publicly available through the 1,000 Genomes Project, we derived their genomic characteristics for a suite of qualitative and quantitative traits. One exemplary trait is susceptibility to COVID-19, based on the most up-to-date scientific findings reported.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 226-236
Author(s):  
Dadang Husen Sobana ◽  
Ricky Hamzah ◽  
Sri Habibah

Third-party funds at Islamic commercial banks in Indonesia fluctuated. The factors that determine the accumulation of third-party funds are essential for Islamic banks' financial stability and management. This study aims to show and describe the effect of gross domestic product and inflation on third-party funds partially and simultaneously. The research method used is descriptive-associative with a quantitative approach. The population used is Islamic commercial banks in Indonesia. Data analysis using multiple linear regression. The results show that gross domestic product and inflation partially affect third-party funds in Islamic commercial banks in Indonesia. Meanwhile, simultaneously gross domestic product and inflation have a significant effect with a contribution of 85.5% to third-party funds in Islamic commercial banks in Indonesia. The increase in third-party funds depends on Indonesia's macroeconomic conditions, the dominant macroeconomic influencing the collection of third-party funds in Islamic commercial banks in Indonesia.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Laura Anderson

<p>Both adults and children accurately and efficiently predict what other people know, despite interacting with a diverse range of individuals who each have different knowledge sets. To reduce the cognitive cost of predicting each individual’s knowledge, there is evidence that we use heuristics to make generalisable predictions about the way specific kinds of knowledge are shared with others. Yet, little research examines the function of a knowledge prediction heuristic, the input needed to produce accurate knowledge predictions, or changes across development. I propose that children use a heuristic to predict others’ knowledge, and that this heuristic functions by considering the type of knowledge being predicted, and characteristics of the individual whose knowledge is being predicted. Chapter 2 demonstrates that 3- to 6-year-old children accurately and selectively predict who shares different pieces of their knowledge. Children also predict knowledge accurately in a third-party task, providing evidence for the use of a generalisable heuristic rather than simple associations or personal experience. Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 demonstrate knowledge overestimation errors, predicted by the heuristic I propose. 4-year-olds, but not 6-year-olds, overattribute knowledge to others if the knowledge item being predicted is an example of a cultural knowledge item (typically shared with strangers from the same social groups). Yet, even 4-year-olds do not make this over-attribution error when predicting an example of a typically episodic knowledge item (not typically shared with any strangers). Chapter 4 provides initial evidence that feelings of closeness or shared episodic knowledge with a partner (but not simply shared group membership) decrease 4- and 6-year-olds consideration of this partner’s perspective. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for an early-emerging knowledge prediction heuristic which considers the type of knowledge being predicted and characteristics of the individual whose knowledge is being predicted to facilitate accurate yet efficient knowledge predictions.</p>


Author(s):  
Jann-Michael Greenburg

Custom arrangements are: (a) derivative works, generally musical arrangements, based upon preexisting copyrighted musical works, (b) reproduced in the form of sheet music copies, and (c) distributed to specific third-party performance ensembles. Arrangers who create custom arrangements are able to utilize software and Internet services to create such arrangements physically and digitally and distribute them physically and via file sharing. This chapter explores the legal framework and justification for custom arrangement licensing under American law, with a focus on the reproduction, derivative work, distribution, and display rights afforded to copyright owners. Differences between physical and digital sheet music are noted where relevant. The chapter also addresses both practical and normative arguments encountered in the world of custom arrangement licensing and concludes with brief commentary on the custom arrangement licensing process.


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