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Author(s):  
Matthias Cornelius Schaal ◽  
Jörg Detlev Moritz ◽  
Hans-Joachim Mentzel ◽  
Meinrad Beer

Sonography is the most common imaging modality in childhood and adolescence. The rapid availability, absence of X-rays, bedside applicability, e. g., in intensive care units, the lack of need for sedation, and last but not least the very good ultrasound conditions in the vast majority of cases are the main advantages of sonography. Due to the spectrum of patients, from premature infants to adolescents, a great variety of questions arise for the examiner. This requires knowledge of the various disease patterns in the different age groups. Proper handling of the young patients as well as their parents is essential in order to make the examination conditions as optimal as possible. Due to the smaller body size compared to adults, sonographic examinations of the abdomen and thorax in children and adolescents are usually possible with very good image quality. In the majority of cases, a definitive diagnosis is made by sonography without additional cross-sectional imaging, which is more common in adults. Due to the acoustic windows provided by the still open fontanelles, excellent image quality of the central nervous system is usually possible in the first year of life. In most cases, complex MRI examinations are not necessary. Due to the partly still missing ossification of the bony structures, further acoustic windows are available, which allow an examination of, e. g., the spinal canal. Ultrasound also plays a major role in the examination of soft tissues and the musculoskeletal system in childhood and adolescence, not only in hip ultrasound. The aim of this article is to show this very broad spectrum for colleagues working predominantly in adult radiology, to highlight some representative examples and to present the respective clinical features in childhood and adolescence. Key Points:  Citation Format


Author(s):  
David Mangold ◽  
Janek Salatzki ◽  
Johannes Riffel ◽  
Hans-Ulrich Kauczor ◽  
Tim Frederik Weber

Purpose Adaptation of computed tomography protocols for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) planning is required when a first-generation dual-layer spectral CT scanner (DLCT) is used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the objective image quality of aortic CT angiography (CTA) for TAVI planning using a split-phase technique with reconstruction of 40 keV virtual monoenergetic images (40 keV-VMI) obtained with a DLCT scanner. CT angiography obtained with a single-phase protocol of a conventional single-detector CT (SLCT) was used for comparison. Materials and Methods 75 CTA scans from DLCT were retrospectively compared to 75 CTA scans from SLCT. For DLCT, spiral CTA without ECG-synchronization was performed immediately after a retrospectively ECG-gated acquisition covering the heart and aortic arch. For SLCT, spiral CTA with retrospective ECG-gating was performed to capture the heart and the access route simultaneously in one scan. Objective image quality was compared at different levels of the arterial access route. Results 40 keV virtual monoenergetic images of DLCT showed a significantly higher mean vessel attenuation, SNR, and CNR at all levels of the arterial access route. With 40 keV-VMI of DLCT, the overall mean aortic attenuation of all six measured regions was 589.6 ± 243 HU compared to 492.7 ± 209 HU of SLCT (p < 0.01). A similar trend could be observed for SNR (23.6 ± 18 vs. 18.6 ± 9; p < 0.01) and CNR (21.1 ± 18 vs. 16.4 ± 8; p < 0.01). No deterioration was observed for vascular noise (27.8 ± 9 HU vs. 28.1 ± 8 HU; p = 0.599). Conclusion Using a DLCT scanner with a split-phase protocol and 40 keV-VMI for TAVI planning, higher objective image quality can be obtained compared to a single-phase protocol of a conventional CT scanner. Key Points:  Citation Format


Author(s):  
Martina Schmidbauer ◽  
Lars Grenacher ◽  
Markus S. Juchems ◽  
Erik Memmel ◽  
Thomas Lauenstein ◽  
...  

Purpose To analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 on the radiological imaging volume in Germany. Materials und Methods In this retrospective multicenter study, we analyzed CT and MRI examinations of 7 radiology institutes across Germany from January to December 2020. The imaging volume was compared to 2019 (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). Modality, patient service locations, and examined body parts were assessed in consideration of time periods of the pandemic. In addition, correlation with the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 cases and associated death was performed (Spearman-test). Results In total, in 2020, imaging volume declined by 4 % (n = 8314) compared with 2019 (p < 0.05). The hard lockdown during the first pandemic wave (calendar week 12–16, March 22 – April 19) revealed the highest decrease with 29 % (n = 894, p < 0.01), with the greatest decrease in CT (36 % vs. MRI 26 %), outpatients (38 %, p < 0.01), and imaging of the spine and extremities (51–72 %, < 0.05 – p < 0.01). Examinations referred from the emergency department (–13 %, p < 0.05) and CT of the chest (–16 %, p < 0.05) were least affected. With the end of the first wave, gradual normalization of the imaging volume was observed and persisted until the end of the observation period. A reduction of imaging volume negatively correlated with the incidence of SARS-CoV-2-positive cases and associated deaths (r = 0.28 and 0.49, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a significant temporary decline in imaging volume. After the first lockdown period, a quick recovery was observed with radiologic imaging examinations steadily approaching prior-year figures. Key points:  Citation Format


Author(s):  
Thuy Duong Do ◽  
Claudius Melzig ◽  
Hans-Ulrich Kauczor ◽  
Marc-André Weber ◽  
Mark Oliver Wielpütz

Background New radiation protection regulation encompassing additional obligations for monitoring, reporting and recording of radiation exposure, was enacted on December 31, 2018. As a consequence, dose management systems (DMS) are necessary to fulfill the requirements. The process of selection, acquisition and implementation of a suitable IT solution for this purpose is a challenge that all X-ray-applying facilities, including hospitals and private practices, are currently facing. Method A target/actual-analysis as well as a cost-utility analysis is presented for this specific case as a foundation for the acquisition decision-making process. Result An actual analysis is necessary in order to record the current status of dose documentation. An interdivisional approach is recommended to include all imaging modalities and devices. An interdisciplinary steering committee can be helpful in enabling consensus and rapid action. A target analysis includes additional criteria with respect to ease of operation, technical feasibility, process optimization and research opportunities to consider in addition to the statutory requirements. By means of a cost-benefit analysis, considerations between costs and the individually weighted advantages and disadvantages of eligible DMS result in a ranking of preference for the available solutions. Conclusion Requirements of a DMS can be summarized in a specification sheet. Deploying an actual condition analysis, target state analysis and cost-utility analysis can help to identify a suitable DMS to achieve rapid commissioning and highest possible user acceptance while optimizing costs at the same time. Key Points: Citation Format


Author(s):  
Birgit Sabine Müller ◽  
Julian Singer ◽  
Georg Stamm ◽  
Lukas Pirl ◽  
Markus Borowski ◽  
...  

Purpose According to the German legislation and regulation of radiation protection, i. e. Strahlenschutzgesetz und Strahlenschutzverordnung (StrlSchG and StrlSchV), which came into force on 31st December 2018, significant unintended or accidential exposures have to be reported to the competent authority. Furthermore, facilities have to implement measures to prevent and to recognize unintended or accidental exposures as well as to reduce their consequences. We developed a process to register incidents and tested its application in the framework of a multi-center-study. Materials and Methods Over a period of 12 months, 16 institutions for x-ray diagnostics and interventions, documented their incidents. Documentation of the incidents was conducted using the software CIRSrad, which was developed, released for testing purposes and implemented in the frame of the study. Reporting criteria of the project were selected to be more sensitive compared to the legal criteria specifying “significant incidents”. Reported incidents were evaluated after four, eight, and twelve months. Finally, all participating institutions were interviewed on their experience with the software and the correlated effort. Results The rate of reported incidents varied between institutions as well as between modalities. The majority of incidents were reported in conventional x-ray imaging, followed by computed tomography and therapeutic interventions. Incidents were attributed to several different causes, amongst others to the technical setup and patient positioning (19 %) and patient movement or insufficient cooperativeness of the patient (18 %). Most incidents were below corresponding thresholds stated in StrlSchV. The workload for documenting the incidents was rated as appropriate. Conclusion It is possible to monitor and handle incidents complient with legal requirements with an acceptable effort. The number of reported incidents can be increased by frequent trainings on the detection and the processing workflow, on the software and legal regulation as well as by a transparent error handling within the institution. Key Points:  Citation Format


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