cost benefit
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2022 ◽  
Vol 306 ◽  
pp. 114386
Shannon M. White ◽  
Martin Schaefer ◽  
Peter Barfield ◽  
Ruth Cantrell ◽  
Gordon J. Watson

2022 ◽  
Vol 304 ◽  
pp. 114230
Yifei Zhu ◽  
Changqing Xu ◽  
Dingkun Yin ◽  
Jiaxin Xu ◽  
Yuqi Wu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Yuanfei Pan ◽  
Xiaoyun Pan ◽  
Lucas Del Bianco Faria ◽  
Bo Li

Herbivory degree and the ratio of generalist to specialist herbivores have long been treated as two important but independent factors in shaping the evolution of plant defense. However, this assumption of independency is poorly supported and has resulted in great controversy in explaining the patterns of plant defense. Here we investigated the possible interaction between herbivory degree and generalist-to-specialist ratio using a cost-benefit model of defense evolution in plants. Our results showed that, with increasing generalist herbivore proportion, plant defense investment increases when herbivory degree is low and decreases when herbivory degree is high. These results provide the first theoretical support for the interactive effect of herbivory degree and ratio of generalist/specialist affecting plant defense, which integrate many of the previous results (e.g. latitudinal patterns of plant defense and defense evolution of invasive plants) and put them into a more general theoretical context.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 383-408
Renata Priscila Barros de Menezes ◽  
Jéssika de Oliveira Viana ◽  
Eugene Muratov ◽  
Luciana Scotti ◽  
Marcus Tullius Scotti

Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma; it is commonly caused by Schistosoma mansoni, which is transmitted by Bioamphalaria snails. Studies show that more than 200 million people are infected and that more than 90% of them live in Africa. Treatment with praziquantel has the best cost–benefit result on the market. However, hypersensitivity, allergy, and drug resistance are frequently presented after administration. From this perspective, ligand-based and structure-based virtual screening (VS) techniques were combined to select potentially active alkaloids against S. mansoni from an internal dataset (SistematX). A set of molecules with known activity against S. mansoni was selected from the ChEMBL database to create two different models with accuracy greater than 84%, enabling ligand-based VS of the alkaloid bank. Subsequently, structure-based VS was performed through molecular docking using four targets of the parasite. Finally, five consensus hits (i.e., five alkaloids with schistosomicidal potential), were selected. In addition, in silico evaluations of the metabolism, toxicity, and drug-like profile of these five selected alkaloids were carried out. Two of them, namely, 11,12-methylethylenedioxypropoxy and methyl-3-oxo-12-methoxy-n(1)-decarbomethoxy-14,15-didehydrochanofruticosinate, had plausible toxicity, metabolomics, and toxicity profiles. These two alkaloids could serve as starting points for the development of new schistosomicidal compounds based on natural products.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Sukeshini A. Grandhi ◽  
Linda Plotnick

This study explores privacy concerns perceived by people with respect to having their DNA tested by direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies such as 23andMe and Data collected from 510 respondents indicate that those who have already obtained a DTC genetic test have significantly lower levels of privacy and security concerns than those who have not obtained a DTC genetic test. Qualitative data from respondents of both these groups show that the concerns are mostly similar. However, the factors perceived to alleviate privacy concerns are more varied and nuanced amongst those who have obtained a DTC genetic test. Our data suggest that privacy concerns or lack of concerns are based on complex and multiple considerations including data ownership, access control of data and regulatory authorities of social, political and legal systems. Respondents do not engage in a full cost/benefit analysis of having their DNA tested.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260877
Bekele Hundie Kotu ◽  
Abdul Rahman Nurudeen ◽  
Francis Muthoni ◽  
Irmgard Hoeschle-Zeledon ◽  
Fred Kizito

This study was conducted to assess the potential impact of applying a new groundnut planting density on welfare of smallholder farmers in northern Ghana. We used data from on-farm experiments, focus group discussions, and a household survey. We followed three steps in our analysis. First, we conducted cost-benefit analysis in which we showed the economic advantage of the new technology over the farmers’ practice. Second, we predicted adoption rates along timeline using the Adoption and Diffusion Outcome Prediction Tool (ADOPT). Third, using the results of the first and the second steps, we estimated the potential impact of the technology on poverty at household level using a combination of methods such as economic surplus model and econometric model. The cost-benefit analysis shows that increasing plant density increases farmers’ financial returns i.e., the benefit-cost-ratio increases from 1.05 under farmers’ practice to 1.87 under the best plant density option, which is 22 plants/sqm. The adoption prediction analysis shows that the maximum adoption rate for the best practice will be 62% which will take about nine years to reach. At the maximum adoption rate the incidence of extreme poverty will be reduced by about 3.6% if farmers have access to the international groundnut market and by about 2% if they do not have. The intervention will also reduce poverty gap and poverty severity. The results suggest that policy actions which can improve farmers’ access to the international market will enhance farmers’ welfare more than the situation in which farmers have access to domestic markets only. Furthermore, promoting a more integrated groundnut value-chain can broaden the demand base of the produce resulting in higher and sustainable impact of the technology on the welfare of groundnut producers and beyond.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 909
Amin Alizadeh

(1) Although numerous articles have been published to address the drivers or barriers of corporate social responsibility (CSR), some parts of the world have received less attention. In this study, I reviewed the literature from 2010 to 2021 to identify drivers and barriers of CSR in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and compare them with the findings in Western countries. (2) Methods: For this study, I used a structured literature review method. By setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 28 articles remained from the selected database. (3) Results: The findings revealed that some CSR drivers, such as leadership styles, profitability, reputation, moral commitment, and environmental conservation, are common in both regions. There are also some differences between CSR drivers, for example, religious beliefs, low concentration of ownership, and company characteristics are some of the drivers in the MENA region. Maintaining social license to operate, and avoiding the risks of community opposition, pressure from the government, and consumer demand tend to be more important in Western countries. Common barriers in both regions are lack of financial resources, cost, lack of CSR knowledge and awareness, and ownership concentration. This review also highlighted that lack of law enforcement, lack of stakeholder communication, lack of management commitment, lack of interests, corruption, and financial debts are some of the barriers of CSR addressed in the MENA region, whereas cost/benefit ratio, lack of customer interest, and lack of scientific frameworks are special barriers in Western countries. (4) Conclusions: Although researchers in Western countries have more focus on the energy sector, there is a lack of research about the drivers and barriers of CSR in the MENA region in several industries, including oil and gas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
Feliciana P. Jacoba ◽  
Rosemarie R. Casimiro ◽  
Olive Chester C. Antonio ◽  
Arneil G. Gabriel

There is an urgent need to solve the problem of workplace bullying in both private and government sectors. Bullying at work creates serious negative consequences to the victims and the organization affecting their productivity. The magnitude of the problem necessitates state intervention to correct market and government failures. This policy paper studies office bullying and the need to legislate to realize efficient and effective allocation of government and private resources. It is guided by the Constitutional mandate that maintenance of peace, harmony, health and safety at work is an inherent duty of the State because of its inherent power to issue orders and command obedience to mitigate its effects. Using Cost Benefit Analysis, Institutional Analysis to policy making, and Rational-Decision making as tools for analysis, crafting and passing upon a statute is the most feasible means to address the problem of workplace bullying. The need to legislate a national policy on workplace bullying is necessary to mitigate its negative consequences both to employees and organizational productivity. Office bullying as a public issue also requires strict monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of similar or related laws may also address the problems cause by the same destructive behaviors but are inadequately explored in many researches.

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