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Thomas Balfe

The shared embodiment of humans and animals, and the notion of the ‘creaturely’ human influentially discussed by Anat Pick, have recently emerged as vital concerns within Animal Studies. Aligning its critical stance with these perspectives, this article analyses the small painting in the Rijksmuseum, traditionally attributed to Jan de Baen, which depicts the 1672 murder of the Dutch politicians Johan and Cornelis de Witt. Pamphlets, broadsheets and other contemporary responses to the murder frequently compare the bodies of the De Witts – which were eviscerated, hung upside-down, shorn of body parts and allegedly partially eaten – to animal carcasses. Drawing on these contextual sources, the essay explores how the painting works with and against period constructions of the killing in terms of inter-species violence. It uncovers tentative admissions of human creatureliness in the painting’s representation of the murdered body as a temporal, material and fragile entity.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Ihsanullah ◽  
M. J. Yousuf ◽  
N. Ahmad ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
S. Majeed ◽  

Abstract. The study was undertaken from September 2018 to April 2019 to determine the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in human beings living in six districts of Karachi. Suspected persons were screened for the disease and positive cases were identified on the basis of skin lesions and blood samples. Samples were observed by mounting their smear. A total of 207 subjects of different ages and sex groups were investigated, however, only 192 (92%) of the suspected cases were found to have the disease 64% of cases were male which were significantly high (p<0.05), than female 36%. The lesion was more frequently detected among the youth ages of 21-30 years (31%) as compared to other groups. In both sexes, legs were found to be more infected (25% male + 20% female) followed by arms (20% male + 0% female) and face (15% male +11% female). The mixed body parts had shown the lowest infections such as (4% in males + 5%) in females. In conclusion, the highest and lowest leishmaniasis infections were observed in District West (23% male + 9% female) followed by District East (15% male + 7% female), District Malir (11% male+ 4% female), District Central (7% male + 5% female), District Korangi (4% male + 7% female) and District South (4% male + 4% female) respectively.

2022 ◽  
pp. 209-231
Margaret Brazier ◽  
Alexandra Mullock

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Chisa Aoyama ◽  
Ryoma Goya ◽  
Naofumi Suematsu ◽  
Koji Kadota ◽  
Yuji Yamamoto ◽  

In a table tennis rally, players perform interceptive actions on a moving ball continuously in a short time, such that the acquisition process of visual information is an important determinant of the performance of the action. However, because it is technically hard to measure gaze movement in a real game, little is known about how gaze behavior is conducted during the continuous visuomotor actions and contributes to the performance. To examine these points, we constructed a novel psychophysical experiment model enabling a continuous visuomotor task without spatial movement of any body parts, including the arm and head, and recorded the movement of the gaze and effector simultaneously at high spatiotemporal resolution. In the task, Gabor patches (target) moved one after another at a constant speed from right to left at random vertical positions on an LC display. Participants hit the target with a cursor moving vertically on the left side of the display by controlling their prehensile force on a force sensor. Participants hit the target with the cursor using a rapid-approaching movement (rapid cursor approach, RCA). Their gaze also showed rapid saccadic approaching movement (saccadic eye approach, SEA), reaching the predicted arrival point of the target earlier than the cursor. The RCA reached in or near the Hit zone in the successful (Hit) trial, but ended up away from it in the unsuccessful (Miss) trial, suggesting the spatial accuracy of the RCA determines the task's success. The SEA in the Hit trial ended nearer the target than the Miss trial. The spatial accuracy of the RCA diminished when the target disappeared 100 ms just after the end of the SEA, suggesting that visual information acquired after the saccade acted as feedback information to correct the cursor movement online for the cursor to reach the target. There was a target speed condition that the target disappearance did not compromise RCA's spatial accuracy, implying the possible RCA correction based on the post-saccadic gaze location information. These experiments clarified that gaze behavior conducted during fast continuous visuomotor actions enables online correction of the ongoing interceptive movement of an effector, improving visuomotor performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 72-77
Evgenii Sniatkov ◽  
Fatma Mirzoeva ◽  
Muslim Tsuev

Modern methods of restoring body parts of a car include many interrelated operations performed in accordance with certain requirements. Carried out repairs are usually con-trolled both by the organization that carried out the repairs and by the car owner. Often after the repair, there is disagreement in the assessment of quality. The article describes the methodology for de-termining the location of damage hidden from observation without using the destructive meth-od. Based on the application of non-destructive testing and analysis of chronology, conclusions are drawn about the cause of the formation of convex deformities of the sweat. Practical value. The article may be useful to specialists working in the field of body repair, as well as experts evaluating the quality of body repair

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 164
Ping-Shun Chen ◽  
Gary Yu-Hsin Chen ◽  
Li-Wen Liu ◽  
Ching-Ping Zheng ◽  
Wen-Tso Huang

This study investigates patient appointment scheduling and examination room assignment problems involving patients who undergo ultrasound examination with considerations of multiple examination rooms, multiple types of patients, multiple body parts to be examined, and special restrictions. Following are the recommended time intervals based on the findings of three scenarios in this study: In Scenario 1, the time interval recommended for patients’ arrival at the radiology department on the day of the examination is 18 min. In Scenario 2, it is best to assign patients to examination rooms based on weighted cumulative examination points. In Scenario 3, we recommend that three outpatients come to the radiology department every 18 min to undergo ultrasound examinations; the number of inpatients and emergency patients arriving for ultrasound examination is consistent with the original time interval distribution. Simulation optimization may provide solutions to the problems of appointment scheduling and examination room assignment problems to balance the workload of radiological technologists, maintain high equipment utilization rates, and reduce waiting times for patients undergoing ultrasound examination.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Minyan Zheng ◽  
Olga Zueva ◽  
Veronica Hinman

The ability to restore lost body parts following traumatic injury is a fascinating area of biology that challenges current understanding of the ontogeny of differentiation. The origin of new cells needed to regenerate lost tissue, and whether they are pluripotent stem cells, tissue-specific stem cells or have de- or trans- differentiated, remains one of the most important open questions in regeneration. Additionally, it is not clearly known whether developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are reused to direct specification in these cells or whether regeneration specific networks are deployed. Echinoderms, including sea stars, have extensive ability for regeneration and have therefore been the subject of many thorough studies on the ultrastructural and molecular properties of cells needed for regeneration. However, the technologies for obtaining transgenic echinoderms are limited and tracking cells involved in regeneration, and thus identifying the cellular sources and potencies has proven challenging. In this study we develop new transgenic tools to follow the fate of populations of cells in the regenerating bipinnaria larva of the sea star Patira minaita. We show that the larval serotonergic nervous system can regenerate following decapitation. Using a BAC-transgenesis approach with photoconvertible fluorescent proteins, we show that expression of the pan ectodermal marker, sox2, is induced in previously sox2 minus cells at the wound site, even when cell division is inhibited. sox2+ cells give rise to new sox4+ neural precursors that then proceed along an embryonic neurogenesis pathway to reform the anterior nervous systems. sox2+ cells contribute to only neural and ectoderm lineages, indicating that these progenitors maintain their normal, embryonic lineage restriction. This indicates that sea star larval regeneration uses a combination of existing lineage restricted stem cells, as well as respecification of cells into neural lineages, and at least partial reuse of developmental GRNs to regenerate their nervous system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 799
Jindrich Adolf ◽  
Jaromir Dolezal ◽  
Patrik Kutilek ◽  
Jan Hejda ◽  
Lenka Lhotska

In recent years, several systems have been developed to capture human motion in real-time using common RGB cameras. This approach has great potential to become widespread among the general public as it allows the remote evaluation of exercise at no additional cost. The concept of using these systems in rehabilitation in the home environment has been discussed, but no work has addressed the practical problem of detecting basic body parts under different sensing conditions on a large scale. In this study, we evaluate the ability of the OpenPose pose estimation algorithm to perform keypoint detection of anatomical landmarks under different conditions. We infer the quality of detection based on the keypoint confidence values reported by the OpenPose. We used more than two thousand unique exercises for the evaluation. We focus on the influence of the camera view and the influence of the position of the trainees, which are essential in terms of the use for home exercise. Our results show that the position of the trainee has the greatest effect, in the following increasing order of suitability across all camera views: lying position, position on the knees, sitting position, and standing position. On the other hand, the effect of the camera view was only marginal, showing that the side view is having slightly worse results. The results might also indicate that the quality of detection of lower body joints is lower across all conditions than the quality of detection of upper body joints. In this practical overview, we present the possibilities and limitations of current camera-based systems in telerehabilitation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Angela Stevenson ◽  
Tadhg C. Ó Corcora ◽  
Christopher D. G. Harley ◽  
Tomasz K. Baumiller

Regrowth of body parts occurs in almost every phylum of the animal kingdom, but variation in this process across environmental, morphological, and behavioral gradients remains poorly understood. We examined regeneration patterns in feather stars – a group known for a wide range of morphologies and behaviors and up to a forty-fold difference in arm regeneration rates – and found that the variation in arm regeneration rates is best explained by swimming ability, not temperature, food supply, morphology (total number of arms and number of regenerating arms), or degree of injury. However, there were significant interactive effects of morphology on rates of regeneration of the main effect (swimming ability). Notably, swimmers grew up to three-fold faster than non-swimmers. The temperate feather star Florometra serratissima regenerated faster under warmer scenarios, but its rates fell within that of the tropical species suggesting temperature can account for intraspecific but not interspecific differences. We urge comparative molecular investigations of crinoid regeneration to identify the mechanisms responsible for the observed interspecific differences, and potentially address gaps in stem cell research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 289 (1966) ◽  
Cecilia Estalles ◽  
Sheela P. Turbek ◽  
María José Rodríguez-Cajarville ◽  
Luís Fábio Silveira ◽  
Kazumasa Wakamatsu ◽  

Coloration traits are central to animal communication; they often govern mate choice, promote reproductive isolation and catalyse speciation. Specific genetic changes can cause variation in coloration, yet far less is known about how overall coloration patterns—which involve combinations of multiple colour patches across the body—can arise and are genomically controlled. We performed genome-wide association analyses to link genomic changes to variation in melanin (eumelanin and pheomelanin) concentration in feathers from different body parts in the capuchino seedeaters, an avian radiation with diverse colour patterns despite remarkably low genetic differentiation across species. Cross-species colour variation in each plumage patch is associated with unique combinations of variants at a few genomic regions, which include mostly non-coding (presumably regulatory) areas close to known pigmentation genes. Genotype–phenotype associations can vary depending on patch colour and are stronger for eumelanin pigmentation, suggesting eumelanin production is tightly regulated. Although some genes are involved in colour variation in multiple patches, in some cases, the SNPs associated with colour changes in different patches segregate spatially. These results suggest that coloration patterning in capuchinos is generated by the modular combination of variants that regulate multiple melanogenesis genes, a mechanism that may have promoted this rapid radiation.

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