Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B
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Published By Springer-Verlag

1543-1916, 1073-5615

L. Michels ◽  
A. J. F. Pires ◽  
C. A. S. Ribeiro ◽  
B. Kroka ◽  
E. G. Hoel ◽  

AbstractNon-metallic microparticles in spheroidal graphite irons are a product of the inoculation and the Mg-treatment of the liquid melt. Besides the influence on the mechanical properties of these iron–carbon–silicon alloys, they are also responsible for the nucleation and the morphology of the graphite phase. The present investigation is undertaken to study holding time effects of a (Ba, Ca, Al)–ferrosilicon (called Ba-inoculant) and (Ca, Al)–ferrosilicon (called Ca-inoculant) inoculants on the overall distribution of microparticles. Using the 2D to 3D conversions method, which is typically used for graphite nodules, the non-metallic microparticles’ statistical parameters, such as size distributions and number densities, are quantified. The total number of particles is similar after Mg-treatment and inoculation for Ca-inoculant but not for Ba-inoculated samples, which lose approximately 25 pct of microparticles after 1 minute of holding time. Iron treated with the Ca-inoculant loses about 37 pct of its nodules after 5 minutes, while the Ba-inoculated melts maintain their performance even after 10 minutes. Based on extrapolating the trend of the undercooling, Ba-inoculated samples would reach the uninoculated undercooling values in 48 minutes, while Ca-inoculated samples in only 11 minutes. By evaluating the size distributions of the non-metallic microparticles, the Ostwald ripening hypothesis or particle aggregation can be verified. The results suggest that sulfides are more critical for graphite nucleation since they can be correlated with the graphite number densities. However, due to the small difference in the microparticle population of the uninoculated sample with Ca-inoculated samples, other aspects of the fading mechanism need to be considered, such as transient metastable states, since the central hypothesis of loss of inclusions cannot alone explain the decrease in the nucleation frequency of graphite.

Linzhu Wang ◽  
Yutang Li ◽  
Shufeng Yang ◽  
Junqi Li ◽  
Chaoyi Chen ◽  

Zsolt Salyi ◽  
George Kaptay ◽  
Daniel Koncz-Horvath ◽  
Laszlo Somlyai-Sipos ◽  
Peter Zoltan Kovacs ◽  

AbstractThe goal of this research is to study the applicability of the diffusion boriding process as a high-temperature thermochemical heat treatment to enhance the lifetime of steel selective soldering tools. The main purpose of the work is to discuss the behavior of double-phase (FeB/Fe2B) iron-boride coating on the surface of different steels (DC04, C45, CK60, and C105U) against the stationary SAC309 lead-free solder liquid alloy. The boride coating was formed on the surface of the steel samples through the powder pack boriding technique. The microstructure of the formed layer was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The borided samples were first cut in half and then immersed into a stationary SAC309 lead-free solder liquid alloy (Sn–3Ag–0.9Cu) for 40 days. Microstructure examinations were performed by SEM with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and an elemental distribution map after the dissolution test. Excessive dissolution/corrosion of the original steel surface was observed at the steel/SAC interfaces, leading also to the formation of Fe–Sn intermetallic phases. This was found to be the major reason for the failure of selective soldering tools made of steel. On the contrary, no dissolution and no intermetallic compounds were observed at the FeB/SAC and at the Fe2B/SAC interfaces; as a result, the thicknesses of the FeB and Fe2B phases remained the same during the 40-day dissolution tests. Thus, it was concluded that both FeB and Fe2B phases show excellent resistance against the aggressive liquid solder alloy. The results of the dissolution tests show a good agreement with the thermodynamic calculations.

Kunpeng Wang ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Yongbiao Lai ◽  
Jiaming Liao ◽  
Min Jiang ◽  

Denis Ordinartsev ◽  
Alexey Krasheninin ◽  
Sofia Petrova ◽  
Olga Gyrdasova

Asem Hussein ◽  
Zhaohui Wang ◽  
Arne Petter Ratvik ◽  
Tor Grande ◽  
Houshang Alamdari

Kyung-Hwan Lim ◽  
Hyeong-Jun Jeoung ◽  
Tae-Hyuk Lee ◽  
Kyung-Woo Yi ◽  
Jungshin Kang

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