Applying basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag as aggregate in asphalt mixture is continuously investigated due to the increasing shortage of natural aggregate in recent years. However, the negative effect of BOF’s expansion in water greatly limits its further application in pavement construction. To address this problem, this paper studied the volume stability of BOF, and its asphalt mixture relied on actual engineering. The asphalt mixtures contained BOF aggregate was designed by the Marshall method with three different gradation types (AC-16, AC-20, and ATB-25). Besides, both laboratory samples and the core samples from field drilling were investigated in volume expansion rate after curing in a water bath. The economic and resource benefits of BOF replacement of natural aggregates were also analyzed. The results showed that the free calcium oxide content of BOF slag is positively related to the particle sizes. Nevertheless, the expansion rates of both the BOF aggregate and its asphalt mixture were less than 1%, which meant the BOF aggregate applied to the asphalt mixture meets the practical engineering requirements. The maximum allowable free calcium oxide content for large-grain size of steel slag is the smallest; it is also recommended that the expansibility of large-grain steel slag should be the first concern in the application. The resource assessment indicated that the use of steel slag for the construction of a trial section of one kilometer of single lane can save 967 tons of natural aggregates. The economic evaluation showed that the use of steel slag instead of natural aggregates for surface course construction could reduce the investment by 16.87%. The experimental methods and conclusions mentioned in this article provide stable references to enhance the development of sustainable pavement by recycling metallurgical slag in highway construction.
This study investigated the air aging converter (Basic Oxygen Furnace, BOF) slag aggregate mortar with pulverized fly ash (PFA) and ferronickel slag (FNS). The chemical composition and mineralogical constituents of BOF incorporated mortar were analyzed. Setting time, flowability, compressive strength, and length change were measured to evaluate the fundamental properties of BOF mortar. The X-ray CT analysis was employed to observe the effect of converter slag in the cement matrix visually. The results showed that the hydration of BOF generated a pore at the vicinity of the aggregate, which decreased the compressive strength and increased the length change of mortar. However, the PFA or FNS incorporation of PFA or FNS can decrease the alkalinity of pore solution and subsequently reduce the reactivity of BOF aggregate. Thus, the incorporation of PFA and FNS can be a way to eliminate the disadvantage of BOF, such as volume expansion.
Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag accounts for the majority of all residual materials produced during steelmaking and may typically contain certain transition metals. Vanadium, in particular, came into focus in recent years because of its potential environmental toxicity as well as its economic value. This study addresses the vanadium chemistry in BOF slags to better understand its recovery and save handling of the waste stream. The experimental results from the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) study show that vanadium is preferably incorporated in calcium orthosilicate-like compounds (COS), with two variations occurring, a low vanadium COS (COS-Si) (approx. 1 wt.%), and a high vanadium COS (COS-V) (up to 18 wt.%). Additionally, vanadium is incorporated in dicalcium ferrite-like compounds (DFS) with an average amount of 3 wt.%. Using powder x-ray diffraction analysis (PXRD), EPMA, and virtual component models, stoichiometric formulas of the main vanadium-bearing phases were postulated. The stoichiometries give an estimate of the oxidation states of vanadium in the respective hosts. According to these results, trivalent vanadium is incorporated on the Fe-position in dicalcium ferrite solid solution (DFS), and V4+ and V5+ are incorporated on the Si-position of the COS.
In order to improve the utilization efficiency of road runoff and the remove effects of heavy metals, porous asphalt pavements have been used as an effective measure to deal with heavy metals in road runoff. However, the removal effect on dissolved heavy metal is weak. In this paper, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag was used as aggregate in porous asphalt concrete to improve the removal capacity of heavy metal. Road runoff solution with a copper concentration of 0.533 mg/L and a zinc concentration of 0.865 mg/L was artificially synthesized. The removal effect of BOF slag porous asphalt concrete on cooper and zinc in runoff was evaluated by removal tests. The influence of rainfall intensity and time on the removal effect was discussed. The results obtained indicated that BOF slag porous asphalt concrete has a better removal effect on copper. The removal rate of copper is 57–79% at the rainfall intensity of 5–40 mm/h. The removal rate of zinc is more susceptible to the changes of rainfall intensity than copper. The removal rate of zinc in heavy rain conditions (40 mm/h) is only 25%. But in light rain conditions (5 mm/h), BOF slag porous asphalt concrete maintains favorable removal rates of both copper and zinc, which are more than 60%. The heavy metal content of runoff infiltrating through the BOF slag porous asphalt concrete meets the requirements for irrigation water and wastewater discharge. The results of this study provide evidence for the environmentally friendly reuse of BOF slag as a road material and the improvement of the removal of heavy metal by porous asphalt concrete.
Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slag is a main byproduct produced during the converter steelmaking process. The poor grindability of BOF slag limits its added-value application. In this paper, the grinding characteristics of unmodified and reconstructed BOF slag were compared. Additionally, the grinding property of reconstructed steel slag was also studied after SiC foaming. The results show that the solid solution of divalent metal oxides’ RO phase, considered as the hardly grinding phase, discomposes after lime-bauxite reconstruction. The characteristics of BOF slag were tested through particle size analysis, XRD, SEM and MIP. The SSA (specific suface area) and the particle diameter of unmodified BOF slag could reach 303.1 m2/kg and 51.75 µm after 10 min of grinding, but that of reconstructed BOF slag could reach 354.5 m2/kg and 18.16 µm after the same grinding time, respectively. The grinding efficiency of steel slag was obviously increased and the particle characteristics were improved after foaming modification. BOF formed as a porous structure after SiC foaming; its porosity, SSA, and particle diameter can reach 31.79%, 424.4 m2/kg, and 24.36 μm and increased by 10.31%, 19.72%, and 39.04%, compared with the reconstructed steel slag of undoped foaming agent, respectively, and the grindability was further improved. A theoretical basis for large-scale BOF slag utilization is provided.