The role of maternal age, growth and environment in shaping offspring performance in an aerial conifer seed bank

2021 ◽  
Marta Callejas‐Díaz ◽  
M. Regina Chambel ◽  
Javier San‐Martín‐Lorén ◽  
Guillermo Gea‐Izquierdo ◽  
Luis Santos‐Del‐Blanco ◽  
Guillaume Péron ◽  
Christophe Bonenfant ◽  
Jean-François Lemaitre ◽  
Victor Ronget ◽  
Morgane Tidiere ◽  

Abstract Several non-human mammalian species provide grandparental care but remain fertile until death, unlike our species. This might call into question the ‘grandmother hypothesis’ that the ability to provide grandparental care, associated with an increase in the cost of breeding with age, promote the early cessation of reproduction. Here, we analyse individual longevity records from non-human mammals to determine whether the few species with grandparental care also stand out among mammals in terms of age-specific survival patterns. Indeed, females of species with grandparental care lived on average 43% longer than males (range: 24–61%), compared with 12% in other polygynous species (95% quantile: −8 to 30%), because of low baseline mortality rates and delayed onset of actuarial senescence. We discuss this finding with respect to the ‘stopping early’ vs. ‘living longer’ debate. We review the role of the environmental context and of the decrease in offspring performance with maternal age (Lansing effect). We formalize the idea of a continuum of parental–grandparental allocation instead of a discrete switch to grandparental care only. Lastly, we suggest that the evolution of menopause has been driven by different forces in different species.

Vegetatio ◽  
1988 ◽  
Vol 74 (1) ◽  
pp. 39-45 ◽  
Evelina D'Angela ◽  
Jos� M. Facelli ◽  
Elizabeth Jacobo

2019 ◽  
Vol 39 (4) ◽  
pp. 191-192
M.C. Magnus ◽  
A.J. Wilcox ◽  
N.H. Morken ◽  
C.R. Weinberg ◽  
S.E. Håberg

2019 ◽  
Vol 29 (5) ◽  
pp. 1444-1457
Stephanie G. Silberman ◽  
Josefina M. Grau ◽  
Patricia Castellanos ◽  
Petra A. Duran ◽  
Erin Smith

2020 ◽  
Vol 42 (2) ◽  
pp. 85
Annemieke Ruttledge ◽  
Ralph D. B. Whalley ◽  
Gregory Falzon ◽  
David Backhouse ◽  
Brian M. Sindel

A large and persistent soil seed bank characterises many important grass weeds, including Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Hack. ex Arechav. (serrated tussock), a major weed in Australia and other countries. In the present study we examined the effects of constant and alternating temperatures in regulating primary and secondary dormancy and the creation and maintenance of its soil seed bank in northern NSW, Australia. One-month-old seeds were stored at 4, 25°C, 40/10°C and 40°C, in a laboratory, and germination tests were conducted every two weeks. Few seeds germinated following storage at 4°C, compared with seeds stored at 25°C, 40/10°C and 40°C. Nylon bags containing freshly harvested seeds were buried among N. trichotoma stands in early summer, and germination tests conducted following exhumation after each season over the next 12 months. Seeds buried over summer and summer plus autumn had higher germination than seeds buried over summer plus autumn plus winter, but germination increased again in the subsequent spring. Seeds stored for zero, three, six and 12 months at laboratory temperatures were placed on a thermogradient plate with 81 temperature combinations, followed by incubation at constant 25°C of un-germinated seeds. Constant high or low temperatures prolonged primary dormancy or induced secondary dormancy whereas alternating temperatures tended to break dormancy. Few temperature combinations resulted in more than 80% germination.

1993 ◽  
Vol 23 (1-4) ◽  
pp. 561-580 ◽  
Claus Holzapfel ◽  
Wolfgang Schmidt ◽  
Avishai Shmida

2019 ◽  
Vol 97 (9) ◽  
pp. 3626-3635 ◽  
Elizabeth A Hines ◽  
Matthew R Romoser ◽  
Zoë E Kiefer ◽  
Aileen F Keating ◽  
Lance H Baumgard ◽  

Abstract Arginine (Arg) is an important amino acid of pig fetal development; however, whether Arg improves postnatal performance is ill-defined. Therefore, the influence of Arg supplementation at different gestational stages on offspring performance was evaluated in a commercial swine herd. Sows (n = 548) were allocated into 4, diet by stage of gestation treatments: Control (n = 143; 0% suppl. Arg), or dietary treatments supplemented with 1% L-Arg (free-base; Ajinomoto Animal Nutrition North America, Inc., Chicago, IL): from 15 to 45 d of gestation (n = 138; Early-Arg); 15 d of gestation to farrowing (n = 139; Full-Arg); and from day 85 of gestation to farrowing (n = 128; Late-Arg). All offspring were individually identified and weighed at birth; at weaning, a subset was selected for evaluation of carcass performance at market. All data were analyzed using birth weight (BiWt) and age as covariates. Wean weights (WW) and prewean (PW) ADG tended to increase (P = 0.06) in progeny from sows supplemented with Arg, as compared to progeny from Control sows. Preplanned contrast comparisons revealed an increased (P = 0.03) BiWt for pigs from sows receiving 1% L-Arg prior to day 45 of gestation (Early-Arg and Full-Arg; 1.38 kg/pig), as compared to pigs from sows not supplemented prior to day 45 of gestation (Control and Late-Arg; 1.34 kg/pig). No difference in BiWt was observed (1.36 kg/pig; P = 0.68) for Arg supplementation after day 85 of gestation (Full-Arg and Late-Arg), as compared to those not receiving Arg supplementation after day 85 (Control and Early-Arg); although WW and PW ADG were greater (P = 0.02), respectively. A 3.6% decrease (P = 0.05) in peak lean accretion ADG occurred when dams received 1% L-Arg prior to day 45 of gestation (Early-Arg and Full-Arg), however, no other significant differences were detected in finishing growth parameters or carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.1). Pig mortality rates tended (P = 0.07) to decrease in progeny of dams supplemented Arg after day 85 (3.6%) compared to dams not provided additional Arg during late gestation (4.9%). Collectively, these data suggest that Arg provided during late gestation may improve WW and PW ADG, however, finishing performance was not affected. While Arg supplementation provided some moderate production benefits, further investigation is warranted to comprehensively understand the gestational timing and biological role of Arg supplementation during fetal and postnatal development in commercial production systems.

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