mammalian species
Recently Published Documents





Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 110
Dóra Kovács ◽  
Nikolett Palkovicsné Pézsa ◽  
Ákos Jerzsele ◽  
Miklós Süth ◽  
Orsolya Farkas

Intestinal epithelium provides the largest barrier protecting mammalian species from harmful external factors; however, it can be severely compromised by the presence of bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Antibiotics have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of GI bacterial infections, leading to antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine alike. In order to decrease antibiotic usage, natural substances, such as flavonoids, are investigated to be used as antibiotic alternatives. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are potential candidates for this purpose owing to their various beneficial effects in humans and animals. In this study, protective effects of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins (GSOPs) were tested in IPEC-J2 porcine intestinal epithelial cells infected with Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium of swine origin. GSOPs were able to alleviate oxidative stress, inflammation and barrier integrity disruption inflicted by bacteria in the co-culture. Furthermore, GSOPs could decrease the adhesion of both bacteria to IPEC-J2 cells. Based on these observations, GSOPs seem to be promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal bacterial infections.

2022 ◽  
Chloé Schmidt ◽  
Gabriel Muñoz ◽  
Lesley T Lancaster ◽  
Jean-Philippe Lessard ◽  
Katharine A Marske ◽  

Global biodiversity is organized into biogeographic regions that comprise distinct biotas. The contemporary factors maintaining differences in species composition between biogeographic regions are poorly understood. Given the evidence that populations with sufficient genetic variation can adapt to fill new habitats, it is surprising that we do not see more homogenization of species assemblages among regions. Theory suggests that the expansion of populations across biogeographic transition zones could be limited by environmental gradients that affect population demography in ways that could limit adaptive capacity, but this has not been empirically explored. Using three independently curated data sets describing continental patterns of mammalian demography and population genetics, we show that populations closer to biogeographic transition zones have lower effective population sizes and genetic diversity, and are more genetically differentiated. These patterns are consistent with reduced adaptive capacity near biogeographic transition zones. The consistency of these patterns across mammalian species suggests they are stable, predictable, and generalizable in their contribution to long-term limits on expansion and homogenization of biodiversity across biogeographic transition zones. Understanding the contemporary processes acting on populations that maintain differences in the composition of regional biotas is crucial for our basic understanding of the current and future organization of global biodiversity. The importance of contemporary, population-level processes on the maintenance of global biogeographic regions suggests that biogeographic boundaries are susceptible to environmental perturbation associated with human-caused global change.

2022 ◽  
Francisca M. Real ◽  
Miguel Lao-Perez ◽  
Miguel Burgos ◽  
Stefan Mundlos ◽  
Dario G. Lupianez ◽  

In species with seasonal breeding, male specimens undergo substantial testicular regression during the non-breeding period of the year. However, the molecular mechanisms that control this biological process are largely unknown. Here, we report a transcriptomic analysis on the Iberian mole, Talpa occidentalis, in which the desquamation of live, non-apoptotic germ cells is the major cellular event responsible for testis regression. By comparing testes at different reproductive states (active, regressing and inactive), we demonstrate that the molecular pathways controlling the cell adhesion function in the seminiferous epithelium, such as the MAPK, ERK and TGF-beta signalling, are altered during the regression process. In addition, inactive testes display a global upregulation of genes associated with immune response, indicating a selective loss of the immune privilege that normally operates in sexually active testes. Interspecies comparative analyses using analogous data from the Mediterranean pine vole, a rodent species where testis regression is controlled by halting meiosis entry, revealed a common gene expression signature in the regressed testes of these two evolutionary distant species. Our study advances in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms associated to gonadal seasonal breeding, highlighting the existence of a conserved transcriptional program of testis involution across mammalian clades.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Ida Wang Henriksen ◽  
Josue Leonardo Castro Mejia ◽  
Caroline Martha Junker Mentzel ◽  
Frederikke Lindenberg ◽  
Axel Kornerup Hansen

AbstractSeveral mammalian species are vaccinated in early life, but little is known about the effect of diet on vaccine response. Oligosaccharides are increasingly proposed as dietary supplement for young individuals due to their anti-inflammatory potential elicited through modulation of gut microbiota (GM). Also, diet, e.g. the size of the fat fraction, is known to modulate the GM. We tested if an oligosaccharide diet (Immulix) and/or increased dietary fat content affected antibody titers to a tetanus vaccine in 48 BALB/cJTac mice through GM modulation. Female mice had significantly higher IgG titers with higher variation compared to male mice. The effects of Immulix and/or increased fat content were minor. Immulix negatively affected IgG titers in male mice four weeks after secondary vaccination but upregulated Il1b gene expression in the spleen. Immulix had a downregulating effect on expression of Cd4 and Foxp3 in ileum only if the mice were fed the diet with increased fat. The diet with increased dietary fat increased Il1b but decreased Cd8a gene expression in the spleen. Immulix and diet affected GM composition significantly. Increased dietary fat content upregulated Lactobacillus animalis but downregulated an unclassified Prevotella spp. Immulix decreased Lactobacillales, Streptococcaceae and Prevotellaceae but increased Bacteroides. It is concluded that in spite of some minor influences on immune cell markers, cytokines and IgG titers Immulix feeding or increased dietary fat content did not have any biologically relevant effects on tetanus vaccine responses in this experiment in mice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Gabriel M. Hauswirth ◽  
Victoria C. Garside ◽  
Lisa S. F. Wong ◽  
Heidi Bildsoe ◽  
Jan Manent ◽  

AbstractThe vertebral column of individual mammalian species often exhibits remarkable robustness in the number and identity of vertebral elements that form (known as axial formulae). The genetic mechanism(s) underlying this constraint however remain ill-defined. Here, we reveal the interplay of three regulatory pathways (Gdf11, miR-196 and Retinoic acid) is essential in constraining total vertebral number and regional axial identity in the mouse, from cervical through to tail vertebrae. All three pathways have differing control over Hox cluster expression, with heterochronic and quantitative changes found to parallel changes in axial identity. However, our work reveals an additional role for Hox genes in supporting axial elongation within the tail region, providing important support for an emerging view that mammalian Hox function is not limited to imparting positional identity as the mammalian body plan is laid down. More broadly, this work provides a molecular framework to interrogate mechanisms of evolutionary change and congenital anomalies of the vertebral column.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Steve Horvath ◽  
Amin Haghani ◽  
Sichong Peng ◽  
Erin N. Hales ◽  
Joseph A. Zoller ◽  

AbstractCytosine methylation patterns have not yet been thoroughly studied in horses. Here, we profile n = 333 samples from 42 horse tissue types at loci that are highly conserved between mammalian species using a custom array (HorvathMammalMethylChip40). Using the blood and liver tissues from horses, we develop five epigenetic aging clocks: a multi-tissue clock, a blood clock, a liver clock and two dual-species clocks that apply to both horses and humans. In addition, using blood methylation data from three additional equid species (plains zebra, Grevy’s zebras and Somali asses), we develop another clock that applies across all equid species. Castration does not significantly impact the epigenetic aging rate of blood or liver samples from horses. Methylation and RNA data from the same tissues define the relationship between methylation and RNA expression across horse tissues. We expect that the multi-tissue atlas will become a valuable resource.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-8
Charles E. Rupprecht ◽  
Lolita I. Van Pelt ◽  
April D. Davis ◽  
Richard B. Chipman ◽  
David L. Bergman

Rabies, a zoonotic encephalitis due to transmission of a lyssavirus, such as rabies virus (RABV), has the highest case fatality of any infectious disease. A global program for the elimination of human rabies caused by dogs is proposed for realization by 2030. Sensitive, specific, and inexpensive diagnostic tests are necessary for enhanced surveillance to detect infection, inform public health and veterinary professionals during risk assessments of exposure, and support overall programmatic goals. Multiple laboratory techniques are used to confirm a suspect case of rabies. One method for the detection of lyssavirus antigens within the brain is the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT), using light microscopy, and suitable for use under field conditions. Besides dogs, other major RABV reservoirs reside among mammalian mesocarnivores and bats. To date, use of the dRIT has been applied primarily for the diagnosis of RABV in suspect mesocarnivores. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the dRIT to the diagnosis of rabies in bats, compared to the gold-standard, the direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT). Brains of 264 suspect bats, consisting of 21 species from Arizona and Texas, were used in the evaluation of the dRIT. The overall sensitivity of the dRIT was 100% (0.969–1.0, 95% CI) and the specificity was 94.6% (0.896–0.976, 95% CI), comparable to the DFAT. This preliminary study demonstrated the utility of the dRIT in the confirmation of RABV infection in bats. Future studies should include additional geographic, lyssavirus, and mammalian species representations for broader application during enhanced rabies surveillance, with incorporation of any potential adjustments to standard protocols, as needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Shaolong Qi ◽  
Xinyu Wang ◽  
Kun Chang ◽  
Wenbin Shen ◽  
Guocan Yu ◽  

AbstractLymphatic system is identified the second vascular system after the blood circulation in mammalian species, however the research on lymphatic system has long been hampered by the lack of comprehensive imaging modality. Nanomaterials have shown the potential to enhance the quality of lymphatic imaging due to the unparalleled advantages such as the specific passive targeting and efficient co-delivery of cocktail to peripheral lymphatic system, ease molecular engineering for precise active targeting and prolonged retention in the lymphatic system of interest. Multimodal lymphatic imaging based on nanotechnology provides a complementary means to understand the kinetics of lymphoid tissues and quantify its function. In this review, we introduce the established approaches of lymphatic imaging used in clinic and summarize their strengths and weaknesses, and list the critical influence factors on lymphatic imaging. Meanwhile, the recent developments in the field of pre-clinical lymphatic imaging are discussed to shed new lights on the design of new imaging agents, the improvement of delivery methods and imaging-guided surgery strategies. Graphical Abstract

Yuewen Zhao ◽  
Sydney Vanderkooi ◽  
Frederick W. K. Kan

AbstractDiverse lines of evidence indicate that the mammalian oviduct makes important contributions to the complex process of reproduction other than being simply a conduit for the transport of gametes and embryos. The cumulative synthesis and transport of proteins secreted by oviductal secretory cells into the oviductal lumen create a microenvironment supporting important reproductive events, including sperm capacitation, fertilization, and early embryo development. Among the components that have been identified in the oviductal fluid is a family of glycosylated proteins known collectively as oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OVGP1) or oviductin. OVGP1 has been identified in several mammalian species, including humans. The present review summarizes the work carried out, in various mammalian species, by many research groups revealing the synthesis and secretion of OVGP1, its fate in the female reproductive tract upon secretion by the oviductal epithelium, and its role in modulating biological functions of gametes and embryos. The production and functions of recombinant human OVGP1 and recombinant OVGP1 of other mammalian species are also discussed. Some of the findings obtained with immunocytochemistry will be highlighted in the present review. It is hoped that the findings obtained from recent studies carried out with recombinant OVGP1 from various species will rekindle researchers’ interest in pursuing further the role of the oviductal microenvironment, of which OVGP1 is a major component, in contributing to the successful occurrence of early reproductive events, and the potential use of OVGP1 in improving the current assisted reproductive technology in alleviating infertility.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261344
Youssef Arnaout ◽  
Zouheira Djelouadji ◽  
Emmanuelle Robardet ◽  
Julien Cappelle ◽  
Florence Cliquet ◽  

With more than 1400 chiropteran species identified to date, bats comprise one-fifth of all mammalian species worldwide. Many studies have associated viral zoonoses with 45 different species of bats in the EU, which cluster within 5 families of bats. For example, the Serotine bats are infected by European Bat 1 Lyssavirus throughout Europe while Myotis bats are shown infected by coronavirus, herpesvirus and paramyxovirus. Correct host species identification is important to increase our knowledge of the ecology and evolutionary pattern of bat viruses in the EU. Bat species identification is commonly determined using morphological keys. Morphological determination of bat species from bat carcasses can be limited in some cases, due to the state of decomposition or nearly indistinguishable morphological features in juvenile bats and can lead to misidentifications. The overall objective of our study was to identify insectivorous bat species using molecular biology tools with the amplification of the partial cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA. Two types of samples were tested in this study, bat wing punches and bat faeces. A total of 163 bat wing punches representing 22 species, and 31 faecal pellets representing 7 species were included in the study. From the 163 bat wing punches tested, a total of 159 were genetically identified from amplification of the partial cyt b gene. All 31 faecal pellets were genetically identified based on the cyt b gene. A comparison between morphological and genetic determination showed 21 misidentifications from the 163 wing punches, representing ~12.5% of misidentifications of morphological determination compared with the genetic method, across 11 species. In addition, genetic determination allowed the identification of 24 out of 25 morphologically non-determined bat samples. Our findings demonstrate the importance of a genetic approach as an efficient and reliable method to identify bat species precisely.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document