Early Stages
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 200
Sumit Murab ◽  
Teresa Hawk ◽  
Alexander Snyder ◽  
Sydney Herold ◽  
Meghana Totapally ◽  

Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head commonly leads to symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hip. In older patients, hip replacement is a viable option that restores the hip biomechanics and improves pain but in pediatric, adolescent, and young adult patients hip replacements impose significant activity limitations and the need for multiple revision surgeries with increasing risk of complication. Early detection of AVN requires a high level of suspicion as diagnostic techniques such as X-rays are not sensitive in the early stages of the disease. There are multiple etiologies that can lead to this disease. In the pediatric and adolescent population, trauma is a commonly recognized cause of AVN. The understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease is limited, adding to the challenge of devising a clinically effective treatment strategy. Surgical techniques to prevent progression of the disease and avoid total hip replacement include core decompression, vascular grafts, and use of bone-marrow derived stem cells with or without adjuncts, such as bisphosphonates and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), all of which are partially effective only in the very early stages of the disease. Further, these strategies often only improve pain and range of motion in the short-term in some patients and do not predictably prevent progression of the disease. Tissue engineering strategies with the combined use of biomaterials, stem cells and growth factors offer a potential strategy to avoid metallic implants and surgery. Structural, bioactive biomaterial platforms could help in stabilizing the femoral head while inducing osteogenic differentiation to regenerate bone and provide angiogenic cues to concomitantly recover vasculature in the femoral head. Moreover, injectable systems that can be delivered using a minimal invasive procedure and provide mechanical support the collapsing femoral head could potentially alleviate the need for surgical interventions in the future. The present review describes the limitations of existing surgical methods and the recent advances in tissue engineering that are leading in the direction of a clinically effective, translational solution for AVN in future.

SERIEs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Cristina Lafuente ◽  
Raül Santaeulàlia-Llopis ◽  
Ludo Visschers

AbstractWe investigate the behavior of aggregate hours supplied by workers in permanent (open-ended) contracts and temporary contracts, distinguishing changes in employment (extensive margin) and hours per worker (intensive margin). We focus on the differences between the Great Recession and the start of the COVID-19 Recession. In the Great Recession, the loss in aggregate hours is largely accounted for by employment losses (hours per worker did not adjust) and initially mainly by workers in temporary contracts. In contrast, in the early stages of the COVID-19 Recession, approximately sixty percent of the drop in aggregate hours is accounted for by permanent workers that do not only adjust hours per worker (beyond average) but also face employment losses—accounting for one-third of the total employment losses in the economy. We argue that our comparison across recessions allows for a more general discussion on the impact of adjustment frictions in the dual labor market and the effects policy, in particular the short-time work policy (ERTE) in Spain.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7380
Savin Dorin Ionesi ◽  
Luminita Ciobanu ◽  
Catalin Dumitras ◽  
Manuela Avadanei ◽  
Ionut Dulgheriu ◽  

Composite materials reinforced with textile fabrics represent a complex subject. When explaining these materials, one must consider their mechanical behavior in general, and impact resistance in particular, as many applications are characterized by dynamic strains. Impact characteristics must be considered from the early stages of the design process in order to be controlled through structure, layer deposition and direction. Reinforcement materials are essential for the quality and behavior of composites, and textile reinforcements present a large range of advantages. It takes a good understanding of the requirements specific to an application to accurately design textile reinforcements. Currently, simulations of textile reinforcements and composites are efficient tools to forecast their behavior during both processing and use. The paper presents the steps that must be followed for modelling the impact behavior of composite materials, using finite element analysis (FEM). The FEM model built using Deform 3D software offers information concerning the behavior structure during impact. The behavior can be visualized for the structure as a whole and, for different sections, be considered significant. Furthermore, the structure’s strain can be visualized at any moment. In real impact tests, this is not possible due to the very short time interval and the impossibility to record inside the structure, as well as to record all significant stages using conventional means.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260714
Bastien Paré ◽  
Marieke Rozendaal ◽  
Sacha Morin ◽  
Léa Kaufmann ◽  
Shawn M. Simpson ◽  

The first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Quebec, Canada, occurred at Verdun Hospital on February 25, 2020. A month later, a localized outbreak was observed at this hospital. We performed tiled amplicon whole genome nanopore sequencing on nasopharyngeal swabs from all SARS-CoV-2 positive samples from 31 March to 17 April 2020 in 2 local hospitals to assess viral diversity (unknown at the time in Quebec) and potential associations with clinical outcomes. We report 264 viral genomes from 242 individuals–both staff and patients–with associated clinical features and outcomes, as well as longitudinal samples and technical replicates. Viral lineage assessment identified multiple subclades in both hospitals, with a predominant subclade in the Verdun outbreak, indicative of hospital-acquired transmission. Dimensionality reduction identified two subclades with mutations of clinical interest, namely in the Spike protein, that evaded supervised lineage assignment methods–including Pangolin and NextClade supervised lineage assignment tools. We also report that certain symptoms (headache, myalgia and sore throat) are significantly associated with favorable patient outcomes. Our findings demonstrate the strength of unsupervised, data-driven analyses whilst suggesting that caution should be used when employing supervised genomic workflows, particularly during the early stages of a pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
C. Keith Harrison ◽  
Bernard Franklin ◽  
Whitney Griffin

The value of intercollegiate athletics in universities has increased since Dr. Myles Brand’s presidency. Brand believed strongly in the integrated view of education and sport. This paper follows the emergence and value of the personal narrative by two African American males working together within the structural forces of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), higher education, and intercollegiate athletics. The personal narrative collaborative effort occurred in the early stages of the NCAA’s Academic Progress Rate movement during Brand’s leadership decision to harmonize education and sport. The personal narrative structure focuses on one of Brand’s major initiatives: improving academic standards. One culturally relevant program that resulted in a collaborative moment during Brand’s leadership tenure will be the focus of this paper, as well as the potential contributions to theory and practice.

2021 ◽  
Iulia Darolti ◽  
Pedro Almeida ◽  
Alison E Wright ◽  
Judith E Mank

Studies of sex chromosome systems at early stages of divergence are key to understanding the initial process and underlying causes of recombination suppression. However, identifying signatures of divergence in homomorphic sex chromosomes can be challenging due to high levels of sequence similarity between the X and the Y. Variations in methodological precision and underlying data can make all the difference between detecting subtle divergence patterns or missing them entirely. Recent efforts to test for X-Y sequence differentiation in the guppy have led to contradictory results. Here we apply different analytical methodologies to the same dataset to test for the accuracy of different approaches in identifying patterns of sex chromosome divergence in the guppy. Our comparative analysis reveals that the most substantial source of variation in the results of the different analyses lies in the reference genome used. Analyses using custom-made de novo genome assemblies for the focal species successfully recover a signal of divergence across different methodological approaches. By contrast, using the distantly related Xiphophorus reference genome results in variable patterns, due to both sequence evolution and structural variations on the sex chromosomes between the guppy and Xiphophorus. Changes in mapping and filtering parameters can additionally introduce noise and obscure the signal. Our results illustrate how analytical differences can alter perceived results and we highlight best practices for the study of nascent sex chromosomes.

Tara Qian Sun

Although the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare is still in its early stages, it is important to understand the factors influencing its adoption. Using a qualitative multi-case study of three hospitals in China, we explored the research of factors affecting AI adoption from a social power perspective with consideration of the learning algorithm abilities of AI systems. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, participative observations, and document analysis, and analyzed using NVivo 11. We classified six social powers into knowledge-based and non-knowledge-based power structures, revealing a social power pattern related to the learning algorithm ability of AI.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 6048
Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska ◽  
Andrzej Brodzicki ◽  
Bill Cassidy ◽  
Connah Kendrick ◽  
Moi Hoon Yap

Over the past few decades, different clinical diagnostic algorithms have been proposed to diagnose malignant melanoma in its early stages. Furthermore, the detection of skin moles driven by current deep learning based approaches yields impressive results in the classification of malignant melanoma. However, in all these approaches, the researchers do not take into account the origin of the skin lesion. It has been observed that the specific criteria for in situ and early invasive melanoma highly depend on the anatomic site of the body. To address this problem, we propose a deep learning architecture based framework to classify skin lesions into the three most important anatomic sites, including the face, trunk and extremities, and acral lesions. In this study, we take advantage of pretrained networks, including VGG19, ResNet50, Xception, DenseNet121, and EfficientNetB0, to calculate the features with an adjusted and densely connected classifier. Furthermore, we perform in depth analysis on database, architecture, and result regarding the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Experiments confirm the ability of the developed algorithms to classify skin lesions into the most important anatomical sites with 91.45% overall accuracy for the EfficientNetB0 architecture, which is a state-of-the-art result in this domain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (10) ◽  
pp. 41-47
Yana OLIYNYK ◽  

The precondition for Ukraine's accession to the multilateral agreement on automatic exchange of interstate reports is the introduction of the Report by countries of the international group of companies (hereinafter - the intercountry report), which is part of the OECD-recommended three-tier transfer pricing documentation model (Action Plan 13, BEPS Action Plan 13). It has been proven that the implementation of the intercountry report is in the early stages of the implementation of Step 13(tax legislation establishes the obligation of multinational enterprises to submit such reports; the form and procedure for its preparation are designed , but there is no mechanism for ensuring confidentiality and appropriate use of information of such reports). The conclusion is made on the need to further improve the legislation of Ukraine in the field of international exchange of information for tax purposes and the relevance of research on these issues.

2021 ◽  
Awais Javed ◽  
Pierre Mattar ◽  
Allie Cui ◽  
Michel Cayouette

Temporal identity factors regulate the competence of neural progenitors to generate specific cell types in a time-dependent manner, but how they operate remains poorly defined. In the developing mouse retina, the Ikaros zinc finger transcription factor Ikzf1 regulates the production of early-born cell types, except cone photoreceptors. In this study we show that Ikzf4, another Ikaros family protein, cooperates with Ikzf1 to control cone photoreceptor production during early stages of retinal development, whereas at late stages, when Ikzf1 is no longer expressed in progenitors, Ikzf4 is instead required for Muller glia production. Using CUT&RUN sequencing, we find that both Ikzf1 and Ikzf4 generally bind to the same genes involved in cone development and other early-born fates, but at different cis-regulatory elements. In late-stage progenitors, Ikzf4 re-localizes to bind target genes involved in Muller glia development and regulate their expression. Specifically, we show that Ikzf4 maintains Hes1 expression in differentiating cells using two Ikzf GGAA binding sites at the Hes1 promoter, thereby favouring Muller glia fate commitment. These results uncover a combinatorial role for Ikaros family members in nervous system development and provide mechanistic insights on how they temporally regulate cell fate output.

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