early stages
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 100196
Y. Ikeda ◽  
R. Yuan ◽  
A. Chakraborty ◽  
H. Ghassemi-Armaki ◽  
J.M. Zuo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 152 ◽  
pp. 106643
Julia Herterich ◽  
Ian Richardson ◽  
Fabrizio Moro ◽  
Maurizio Marchi ◽  
Leon Black

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 182
Annalisa Cespiati ◽  
Marica Meroni ◽  
Rosa Lombardi ◽  
Giovanna Oberti ◽  
Paola Dongiovanni ◽  

Sarcopenia is defined as a loss of muscle strength, mass and function and it is a predictor of mortality. Sarcopenia is not only a geriatric disease, but it is related to several chronic conditions, including liver diseases in both its early and advanced stages. Despite the increasing number of studies exploring the role of sarcopenia in the early stages of chronic liver disease (CLD), its prevalence and the relationship between these two clinical entities are still controversial. Myosteatosis is characterized by fat accumulation in the muscles and it is related to advanced liver disease, although its role in the early stages is still under researched. Therefore, in this narrative review, we firstly aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying sarcopenia and myosteatosis in the early stage of CLD across different aetiologies (mainly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol-related liver disease and viral hepatitis). Secondly, due to the increasing prevalence of sarcopenia worldwide, we aimed to revise the current and the future therapeutic approaches for the management of sarcopenia in CLD.

2022 ◽  
Carla Lopes ◽  
Ildete Luisa Ferreira ◽  
Carina Maranga ◽  
Margarida Beatriz ◽  
Sandra Mota ◽  

Defects in mitochondrial function and mitochondrial-related redox deregulation have been attributed to Huntington disease (HD), a genetic neurodegenerative disorder largely affecting the striatum. However, whether these changes occur in early stages of the disease and can be detected in vivo is still unclear. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed changes in mitochondrial function and overreduced states associated with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at early stages and along disease progression in vivo in the brain by positron emission tomography (PET) and in skin fibroblasts of premanifest/early and manifest HD patients, and in YAC128 transgenic mouse brain (striatum and cortex) at early-symptomatic (3 month-old, mo) and symptomatic (6 to 12 mo) stages. In vivo human and mouse brain PET imaging was assessed using [64Cu]-ATSM; analysis of oxygen consumption rates was assessed by Seahorse analysis, hydrogen peroxide levels were determined using fluorescent probes and mitochondrial morphology by transmission electron microscopy in human skin fibroblasts and mouse striatal and cortical isolated mitochondria. Premanifest and prodromal HD carriers exhibited enhanced whole-brain (with exception of caudate) [64Cu]-ATSM labelling, correlating with CAG repeat number, concomitantly with enhanced basal and maximal respiration, proton (H+) leak and increased hydrogen peroxide levels, the later progressing to advanced HD stage, in human fibroblasts. Mitochondria from fibroblasts of premanifest HD carriers also showed reduced roundness, while higher number of mitochondrial DNA copies correlated with maximal respiratory capacity. In vivo animal PET analysis showed increased accumulation of [64Cu]-ATSM in YAC128 mouse striatum. Pre/early-symptomatic YAC128 mouse striatal, but not cortical, isolated mitochondria exhibited a rise in basal and maximal mitochondrial respiration and in ATP production along with increased complex II and III activities, enhanced mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide and roundness, as revealed by brain ultrastructure analysis, further presenting defects in Ca2+ handling, supporting increased striatal susceptibility in the YAC128 mouse model. Data demonstrate both human and mouse mitochondrial overactivity and altered morphology at early HD stages, facilitating redox unbalance, the latter extending over late disease stages.

2022 ◽  
Naama Zioni ◽  
Akihad Bercovich ◽  
Noa Chapal-Ilani ◽  
Aryeh Solomon ◽  
Ekaterina Petrovich ◽  

Age related cancer is not only due to the random accumulation of mutations, but also how phenotypes are selected by the aging environment. While fatty bone marrow (FBM), is one of the hallmarks of bone marrow ageing, it is unknown whether FBM can modify the evolution of the early stages of leukemia and clonal hematopoiesis (CH). To address this question, we established FBM mice models and transplanted both human and mice preleukemic hematopoietic stem cells (PreL-HSCs) carrying DNMT3A mutations. We demonstrate that castration which models age related andropenia result in FBM. A significant increase in self-renewal was found when DNMT3AMut-preL-HSPCs were exposed to FBM. To better understand the mechanisms of the FBM-preL-HSPCs interaction, we performed single cell RNA-sequencing on HSPCs three days after FBM exposure. A 20-50 fold increase in DNMT3AMut-preL-HSCs was observed under FBM conditions in comparison to other conditions. PreL-HSPCs exposed to FBM exhibited an activated inflammatory signaling (IL-6 and INFγ). Cytokine analysis of BM fluid demonstrated increased IL-6 levels under FBM conditions. Anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibodies significantly reduced the selective advantage of DNMT3AMut-preL-HSPCs exposed to FBM. Overall, age related paracrine FBM inflammatory signals promote DNMT3A-driven clonal hematopoiesis, which can be inhibited by blocking the IL-6 receptor.

2022 ◽  
pp. 092405192110724
Martin Faix ◽  
Ayyoub Jamali

Employing a sociological perspective on the law, this study explores instances of resistance against the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the African Union’s continental human rights judicial body. This approach allows us to examine different forms of resistance that might not necessarily be of a legal character, but which may still have profound implications for the Court’s authority, legitimacy, and operation. Accordingly, the article identifies two forms of resistance against the African Court: ‘pushback’ and ‘backlash’. The former refers to an ordinary form of critique directed against the overall development of an international court, while the latter is understood as an extraordinary form of critique that puts the fundamental authority of a court at stake. While pushback was mainly seen in the early stages of the Court’s establishment, backlash started to emerge following its ground-breaking judgments that caused heated debates on controversial topics. This article concludes that based on the identified and analysed forms of resistance, it is doubtful that the African Court can maintain and fulfil the purpose for which it was established: the protection and promotion of human rights in Africa.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 402
Marie Dupuy ◽  
Sarah Iltache ◽  
Benjamin Rivière ◽  
Alexandre Prieur ◽  
George Philippe Pageaux ◽  

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis. However, AFP is not useful in establishing a prognosis for patients with a tumor in the early stages. hPG80 (circulating progastrin) is a tumor promoting peptide present in the blood of patients with various cancers, including HCC. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of plasma hPG80 in patients with HCC, alone or in combination with AFP. A total of 168 HCC patients were tested prospectively for hPG80 and analyzed retrospectively. The prognostic impact of hPG80 and AFP levels on patient survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. hPG80 was detected in 84% of HCC patients. There was no correlation between hPG80 and AFP levels in the training and validation cohorts. Both cohorts showed higher sensitivity of hPG80 compared to AFP, especially at early stages. Patients with high hPG80 (hPG80+) levels (optimal cutoff value 4.5 pM) had significantly lower median overall survival (OS) compared to patients with low hPG80 (hPG80−) levels (12.4 months versus not reached respectively, p < 0.0001). Further stratification by combining hPG80 and AFP levels (cutoff 100 ng/mL) improved prognosis in particular for those patients with low AFP level (hPG80−/AFP+ and hPG80−/AFP−, 13.4 months versus not reached respectively, p < 0.0001 and hPG80+/AFP+ and hPG80+/AFP−, 5.7 versus 26 months respectively, p < 0.0001). This was corroborated when analyses were performed using the BCLC staging especially at early stages. Our findings show that hPG80 could serve as a new prognostic biomarker in HCC. Used in combination with AFP, it improves the stratification of the patients in good and poor prognosis, especially for those patients with negative AFP and early-stage HCC.

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