Abstract Ri chicken is the most popular backyard chicken breed in Vietnam, but little is known about the growth curve of this breed. This study compared the performances of models with three parameters (Gompertz, Brody, and Logistic) and models containing four parameters (Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek) for describing the growth of Ri chicken. The bodyweight of Ri chicken was recorded weekly from week 1 to week 19. Growth models were fitted using minpack.lm package in R software and Akaike’s information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used for model comparison. Based on these criteria, the models having four parameters showed better performance than the ones with three parameters, and the Richards model was the best one for males and females. The lowest and highest value of asymmetric weights (α) were obtained by Bridges and Brody models for each of sexes, respectively. Age and weight estimated by the Richard model were 8.46 and 7.51 weeks and 696.88 and 487.58 g for males and for females, respectively. Differences in the growth curves were observed between males and female chicken. Overall, the results suggested using the Richards model for describing the growth curve of Ri chickens. Further studies on the genetics and genomics of the obtained growth parameters are required before using them for the genetic improvement of Ri chickens.
Medicinal plants exhibit remarkable positive effects on different aspects of fish physiology. This study aimed to evaluate the possible impact of a combination of plants (Mentha longifolia, Thymus carmanicus, and Trachyspermum copticum) on growth performance, immune responses and key immune gene expression of rainbow trout. For this purpose, four diets were designed, including zero, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% of a mixture of plants per kg of diet, representing dietary treatments of control, T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Two hundred forty fish (weighing 23.11 ± 0.57 g) were fed 3% of body weight twice a day for 45 days. The results showed that growth parameters of weight gain (except for T1) and FCR were significantly improved in fish receiving all levels of plants, with T3 showing the best growth results. Digestive enzymes activities were notably increased in T1 and T2 compared to the control. Stress biomarkers (glucose and cortisol) were significantly decreased in T1 and T2, while T3 was not significantly different from the control. Immunological responses were significantly improved in T2, while T1 andT3 did not show a statistical difference in terms of lysozyme activity. Catalase activity was noticeably decreased in T1, although superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were highest in T2. Immune-related genes were significantly up-regulated in T3 compared to other treatments. Also, antioxidant enzyme coding genes were strongly up-regulated in T2 and T3. Overall, the present results suggest that 1% inclusion of the mixture of M. longifolia, T. carmanicus, and T. copticum (T2) can be used to improve the growth and immunity of rainbow trout.
Water salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses, and the use of saline water for the agricultural sector will incur greater demand in the coming decades. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for developing numerous plant fertilizers as a smart and powerful form of material with dual action that can alleviate the adverse effects of salinity and provide the plant with more efficient nutrient forms. This study evaluated the influence of calcium phosphate NPs (CaP-NPs) as a soil fertilizer application on the production and bioactive compounds of broad bean plants under salinity stress. Results showed that salinity had deleterious effects on plant yield with 55.9% reduction compared to control. On the other hand, CaP-NPs dramatically improved plant yield by 30% compared to conventional fertilizer under salinity stress. This improvement could be attributed to significantly higher enhancement in total soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes, proline content, and total phenolics recorded use of nano-fertilizer compared to conventional use under salt stress. Additionally, nano-fertilizer reflected better mitigatory effects on plant growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, and oxidative stress indicators (MDA and H2O2). Therefore, our results support the replacement of traditional fertilizers comprising Ca2+ or P with CaP-nano-fertilizers for higher plant productivity and sustainability under salt stress.
Background: Inclusion of legume crops in multiple cropping systems has become crucial to increase the sustainability of agroecosystems. Short duration mung bean can be easily fitted into many cropping sequences which also turns the farming highly remunerative along with strengthening the sustainability. The current study was aimed to evaluate residual effect of nutrient management on performance of summer mung bean in a gobhi sarson - summer mung bean sequence. Methods: During the period of 2016-17 and 2017-18 different doses of chemical fertilizers (NPK), combination of FYM with chemical fertilizers and different biofertilizers alone as well as their combination were evaluated to find out their residual effect on summer mung bean grown after the gobhi sarson crop. The data on growth parameters, yield attributes viz; plant height, dry matter accumulation, number of branches per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100- seed weight were collected. The seed and biological yield from different treatments was also evaluated. Result: All growth parameters, yield attributes, seed and biological yield of summer mung bean were affected significantly with chemical fertilizers, their combined application with FYM treatments as well as different biofertilizers treatments applied to preceding gobhi sarson. Growth and yield significantly improved with each incremental dose of chemical fertilizers i.e. from 0 to 50% RDF, 50 to 75% RDF, 75 to 100% RDF while 50% RDF + FYM @ 10 t ha-1 being the best treatment. The treatment with consortium showed significantly maximum yield and growth parameters followed by combined application of Azotobacter + PSB, PSB alone, Azotobacter alone and no inoculation treatments, respectively.
Dietary supplementation with raw garlic has a preventive and healing effect in cardiovascular diseases, but it could also damage the intestinal mucosa, resulting in impairment of nutrient absorption. Garlic processing, including heat treatment, changes the content and biological activity of garlic, so it is crucial to find food-processing methods that will preserve the health-promoting properties of garlic while minimizing its negative impact on the digestive system. Therefore, in this study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) on growth parameters, plasma lipid profile, and morphological parameters in the ileum of Wistar rats subjected to various types of heat treatment (90 s blanching garlic, 10 min boiling in water, 10 min pan frying without fat, microwave heating fresh garlic, 90 s blanching and microwave heating garlic, 10 min boiling in water and microwave heating garlic, and 10 min pan frying without fat and microwave heating garlic) was determined in an atherogenic diet (containing 1% addition of cholesterol). In the conducted research, it was found that the diet supplemented with heat-treated garlic used in the atherogenic diet improved the consumption and growth parameters of rats, depending on the type and time of its use. The highest consumption was recorded in atherogenic groups supplemented with garlic subjected to a longer (10 min) heat treatment and was then heated in a microwave oven. Garlic subjected to the shortest heat treatment proved to be most effective, and a significant improvement in the lipid profiles of rats’ plasma with atherogenic was observed. Extending the time of heat treatment of garlic and, additionally, its microwaving significantly weakened the action of garlic in the body, but still retained its hypolipidemic effect. The greatest influence on the structural changes in the mucosa of the rats’ iliac intestine, manifested by degeneration of the mucosa, shortening the length of the intestinal villi, damage to the brush border, and thus impairment of the intestinal absorption, was exerted by supplementing the atherogenic diet with garlic subjected to short-term heat treatment. Among the processes used, blanching was the least favorable, and the long-lasting thermal processes (cooking, frying for 10 min) had a positive effect on the mucosa of the rats’ intestines. The results obtained in this study confirm that the selection of an appropriate method of thermal processing of garlic may allow for the maintenance of preventive and therapeutic efficacy of garlic in cardiovascular diseases, while ensuring the safety of its long-term use in the context of degenerative changes in the gastrointestinal tract.
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using sewage sludge (SS) biosolids as a low-cost soil fertilizer to improve soil characteristics and crop yields. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) plants were grown in soil supplemented with different concentrations of SS (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 g/kg). The results showed that SS soil application led to improved soil quality with a 93% increase of organic matter (at SS dose of 10 g/kg), decreased pH (a reduction from 8.38 to 7.34), and enhanced macro- and micro- nutrient contents. The levels of all the investigated heavy metals (HMs; Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the postharvest SS-amended soil were within the prescribed safe limits. The application of SS to soil considerably enhanced the growth parameters of okra plants. Total biomass increased 13-fold and absolute growth rate increased 10-fold compared to plants grown in nonamended (control) soils. Among the applied SS doses, the 10 g/kg SS dose led to the highest values of the measured growth parameters, compared to those of plants grown in control soils. The induced growth at 10 g/kg SS was accompanied by a substantial increase in metal content in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits; however, all levels remained within safe limits. Consequently, the data presented in this study suggest that SS could be used as a sustainable organic fertilizer, also serving as an ecofriendly method of SS recycling.