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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Binbin Su ◽  
Yiran Wang ◽  
Yanhui Dong ◽  
Gang Hu ◽  
Yike Xu ◽  

PurposeDiabetes mellitus is emerging as an epidemic worldwide, and the incidence and prevalence of diabetes have drastically changed in China over the past 30 years, but data on its mortality rate are scarce. This study aimed to analyze the time trends of mortality rates among patients with diabetes in the rural and urban population in China between 1987 and 2019.MethodsThe research data come from China’s annual report on national health statistics and the Chinese Health Statistics Yearbook. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated by using the direct method based on the World Standard Population from the WHO. Joinpoint regression analysis was employed to estimate the annual percent change and average annual percentage changes of mortality rates of diabetes mellitus.ResultsAn overall trend for increment in diabetes mortality was observed. The crude mortality rates and age-standardized mortality rates of diabetes for urban and rural residents in China showed a significant increasing trend between 1987 and 2019. Mortality due to diabetes in urban areas has been higher than in rural areas for 30 years. However, due to the rapid increase of rural diabetes mortality in the past decade, the gap between the two gradually narrowed. The age-standardized mortality rates of diabetes increased by about 38.5% in urban areas and 254.9% in rural areas over the whole study period. In addition, the age-standardized mortality rate of females with diabetes was higher than that of males, but this pattern began to change in urban areas in 2012. Finally, the age-standardized mortality rates in the elderly population in China are higher with a faster growth rate, especially in rural areas.ConclusionThe mortality rate of diabetes is on the rise in China. The rapid growth of the mortality rate of diabetes in rural areas leads to the reduction of the urban–rural gap. Male mortality rates in urban areas have surpassed those of women. At the same time, the mortality rate of diabetes showed obvious elder-group orientation. As China’s population ages, the burden of death and disability caused by diabetes and its complications will continue to increase. These results indicate that diabetes has become a significant public health problem in China. Such an effect increases the demand for strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. In addition to the prevention and intervention of diabetes in high-risk groups, it is also necessary to establish diabetes screening networks to identify patients with mild symptoms. Early detection and timely intervention can effectively reduce the incidence and mortality of diabetes.

Bryan McIntosh ◽  
Bruce Sheppy ◽  
Francesco Moscone ◽  
Andreia Areal

As the UK rebuilds and recovers after the COVID-19 pandemic, tackling socioeconomic inequalities will become increasingly pertinent. The link between health and wealth has been long established, with those at the highest risk of illness also being less likely to access healthcare. The pandemic has highlighted these disparities, with higher morbidity and mortality rates seen in deprived areas, as well as among ethnic minority communities. Leaders and clinicians across the NHS and social care have called for a ‘reset’ in the way healthcare is planned, commissioned and delivered in the UK. There is a growing need for a holistic approach to disease prevention, and it is crucial that government agencies take a strong role in addressing the wider determinants of health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
J. Smith Torres-Roman ◽  
Luz Ronceros-Cardenas ◽  
Bryan Valcarcel ◽  
Janina Bazalar-Palacios ◽  
Jorge Ybaseta-Medina ◽  

Abstract Background Cervical cancer continues to show a high burden among young women worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Limited data is available describing cervical cancer mortality among young women in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The purpose of this study was to examine the mortality trends of cervical cancer among young women in LAC and predict mortality rates to 2030. Methods Deaths from cervical cancer were obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 women-years were estimated in women aged 20–44 years using the world standard population for 16 countries (and territories) in LAC from 1997 to 2017. We estimated the average mortality rates for the last 4 years (2014–2017). Joinpoint regression models were used to identify significant changes in mortality trends. Nordpred method was used for the prediction of the mortality rates to 2030. Results Between 2014 and 2017, Paraguay and Venezuela had the highest mortality rates of cervical cancer, whereas Puerto Rico had the lowest rates. Overall, most of the LAC countries showed downward trends of cervical cancer mortality over the entire period. Significant decreases were observed in Chile (Average annual percent change [AAPC]: − 2.4%), Colombia (AAPC: − 2.0%), Cuba (AAPC: − 3.6%), El Salvador (AAPC: − 3.1%), Mexico (AAPC: − 3.9%), Nicaragua (AAPC: − 1.7%), Panama (AAPC: − 1.7%), and Peru (AAPC: − 2.2%). In contrast, Brazil (AAPC: + 0.8%) and Paraguay (AAPC: + 3.7%) showed significant upward trends. By 2030, mortality rates are not predicted to further decrease in some LAC countries, including Argentina, Paraguay, and Venezuela. Conclusions Mortality trends of cervical cancer among young women have large variability in LAC countries. Cervical cancer screening programs have a high priority for the region. Primary and secondary prevention in the community are necessary to accelerate a reduction of cervical cancer mortality by 2030.

Povilas Kavaliauskas ◽  
Audrius Dulskas ◽  
Inga Kildusiene ◽  
Rokas Arlauskas ◽  
Rimantas Stukas ◽  

Background: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and its incidence is increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the time trends in the incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer for the period of 1998–2015 for the first time in Lithuania by sex, age, subsite, and stage. Methods: This study was based on all cases (deaths) of pancreatic cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2015. Age-standardized incidence (mortality) rates and group-specific rates were calculated for each sex using the direct method (European Standard). TNM classification-based information reported to the cancer registry was grouped into three categories: (1) localized cancer: T1-3/N0/M0; (2) cancer with regional metastasis: any 1-3/N+/M0; (3) advanced cancer: any T/any N/M+. Joinpoint regression was used to provide annual percentage changes (APCs) and to detect points in time where statistically significant changes in the trends occurred. Results: Overall, 8514 pancreatic cancer cases (4364 in men and 3150 in women) were diagnosed and 7684 persons died from cancer of the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer incidence rates were considerably lower for women than for men, with a female:male ratio of 1:2. Incidence rates changed during the study period from 14.2 in 1998 to 15.0/100,000 in the year 2015 in men, and from 6.7 to 9.8/100,000 in women. Incidence rates over the study period were stable for men (APC = 0.1%) and increasing for women by 1.1% per year. Similarly, mortality rates increased in women by 0.9% per year, and were stable in men. During the study period, incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer were close. For the entire study period, rates increased significantly in the 50–74 years age group; only cancer of the head of pancreas showed a decline by 0.9%, while tail and not-specified pancreatic cancer incidence increased by 11.4% and 4.51%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasing pancreatic cancer incidence trend in the Lithuanian population may be related to the prevalence of its main risk factors (smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, and diabetes).

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Patrick Andersen ◽  
Anja Mizdrak ◽  
Nick Wilson ◽  
Anna Davies ◽  
Laxman Bablani ◽  

Abstract Background Simulation models can be used to quantify the projected health impact of interventions. Quantifying heterogeneity in these impacts, for example by socioeconomic status, is important to understand impacts on health inequalities. We aim to disaggregate one type of Markov macro-simulation model, the proportional multistate lifetable, ensuring that under business-as-usual (BAU) the sum of deaths across disaggregated strata in each time step returns the same as the initial non-disaggregated model. We then demonstrate the application by deprivation quintiles for New Zealand (NZ), for: hypothetical interventions (50% lower all-cause mortality, 50% lower coronary heart disease mortality) and a dietary intervention to substitute 59% of sodium with potassium chloride in the food supply. Methods We developed a disaggregation algorithm that iteratively rescales mortality, incidence and case-fatality rates by time-step of the model to ensure correct total population counts were retained at each step. To demonstrate the algorithm on deprivation quintiles in NZ, we used the following inputs: overall (non-disaggregated) all-cause mortality & morbidity rates, coronary heart disease incidence & case fatality rates; stroke incidence & case fatality rates. We also obtained rate ratios by deprivation for these same measures. Given all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates by deprivation quintile, we derived values for the incidence, case fatality and mortality rates for each quintile, ensuring rate ratios across quintiles and the total population mortality and morbidity rates were returned when averaged across groups. The three interventions were then run on top of these scaled BAU scenarios. Results The algorithm exactly disaggregated populations by strata in BAU. The intervention scenario life years and health adjusted life years (HALYs) gained differed slightly when summed over the deprivation quintile compared to the aggregated model, due to the stratified model (appropriately) allowing for differential background mortality rates by strata. Modest differences in health gains (HALYs) resulted from rescaling of sub-population mortality and incidence rates to ensure consistency with the aggregate population. Conclusion Policy makers ideally need to know the effect of population interventions estimated both overall, and by socioeconomic and other strata. We demonstrate a method and provide code to do this routinely within proportional multistate lifetable simulation models and similar Markov models.

David Moro-Valdezate ◽  
José Martín-Arévalo ◽  
Vicente Pla-Martí ◽  
Stephanie García-Botello ◽  
Ana Izquierdo-Moreno ◽  

Abstract Purpose To analyze the treatment outcomes for sigmoid volvulus (SV) and identify risk factors of complications and mortality. Methods Observational study of all consecutive adult patients diagnosed with SV who were admitted from January 2000 to December 2020 in a tertiary university institution for conservative management, urgent or elective surgery. Primary outcomes were 30-day postoperative morbidity, mortality and 2-year overall survival (OS), including analysis of risk factors for postoperative morbidity or mortality and prognostic factors for 2-year OS. Results A total of 92 patients were included. Conservative management was performed in 43 cases (46.7%), 27 patients (29.4%) underwent emergent surgery and 22 (23.9%) were scheduled for elective surgery. Successful decompression was achieved in 87.8% of cases, but the recurrence rate was 47.2%. Mortality rates following episodes were higher for conservative treatment than for urgent or elective surgery (37.2%, 22.2%, 9.1%, respectively; p = 0.044). ASA score > III was an independent risk factor for complications (OR = 5.570, 95% CI = 1.740–17.829, p < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 6.139, 95% CI = 2.629–14.335, p < 0.001) in the 30 days after admission. Patients who underwent elective surgery showed higher 2-year OS than those with conservative treatment (p = 0.011). Elective surgery (HR = 2.604, 95% CI = 1.185–5.714, p = 0.017) and ASA score > III (HR = 0.351, 95% CI = 0.192–0.641, p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for 2-year OS. Conclusion Successful endoscopic decompression can be achieved in most SV patients, but with the drawbacks of high recurrence, morbidity and mortality rates. Concurrent severe comorbidities and conservative treatment were independent prognostic factors for morbidity and survival in SV.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Kona Chowdhury ◽  
Mainul Haque ◽  
Nadia Nusrat ◽  
Nihad Adnan ◽  
Salequl Islam ◽  

There is an increasing focus on researching children admitted to hospital with new variants of COVID-19, combined with concerns with hyperinflammatory syndromes and the overuse of antimicrobials. Paediatric guidelines have been produced in Bangladesh to improve their care. Consequently, the objective is to document the management of children with COVID-19 among 24 hospitals in Bangladesh. Key outcome measures included the percentage prescribed different antimicrobials, adherence to paediatric guidelines and mortality rates using purposely developed report forms. The majority of 146 admitted children were aged 5 years or under (62.3%) and were boys (58.9%). Reasons for admission included fever, respiratory distress and coughing; 86.3% were prescribed antibiotics, typically parenterally, on the WHO ‘Watch’ list, and empirically (98.4%). There were no differences in antibiotic use whether hospitals followed paediatric guidance or not. There was no prescribing of antimalarials and limited prescribing of antivirals (5.5% of children) and antiparasitic medicines (0.7%). The majority of children (92.5%) made a full recovery. It was encouraging to see the low hospitalisation rates and limited use of antimalarials, antivirals and antiparasitic medicines. However, the high empiric use of antibiotics, alongside limited switching to oral formulations, is a concern that can be addressed by instigating the appropriate programmes.

2022 ◽  
Anupriya Aggarwal ◽  
Alberto Stella ◽  
Anouschka Akerman ◽  
Gregory Walker ◽  
Vanessa Milogiannakis ◽  

Abstract From late 2020 the world observed the rapid emergence of many distinct SARS-CoV-2 variants. At the same time, pandemic responses coalesced into significant global vaccine roll-out that have now significantly lowered Covid-19 hospital and mortality rates in the developed world. Over this period, we developed a rapid platform (R-20) for viral isolation and characterisation using primary remnant diagnostic swabs. This combined with quarantine testing and genomics surveillance, enabled the rapid isolation and characterisation of all major SARS-CoV-2 variants (all variants of concern and 6 variants of interest) globally with a 4-month period. This platform facilitated viral variant isolation and enabled rapid resolution of variant phenotype by allowing determining end point viral titers from primary nasopharyngeal swabs and through ranking of evasion of neutralising antibodies. In late 2021, when the Delta variant was dominating, Omicron rapidly emerged. Using this platform, we isolated and tested the first cases of this variant within Australia. In this setting we observed Omicron to diverge from other variants at two levels: Firstly, it ranks at the mots evasive to neutralisation antibodies compared to all VOCs and major VUIs. Secondly, it no longer engages TMPRSS2 during the late stages of fusion.

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