Mortality Rates
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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (11) ◽  
pp. 111-121
Elias C. Olapane ◽  
Mary Joyce E. Fernandez ◽  
Brechelle Grace D. Payongayong

Implemented in 2007, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) otherwise known as the Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCT) is a flagship economic and social reform of the Philippine government in order to reduce poverty particularly in the areas of education, healthcare, and the economy as a whole. The emergence of the pandemic interested the researchers in examining the implementation of such a program among its beneficiaries using trend analysis (2015-2021). From 17 regions in the Philippines, the researchers used cluster sampling and took the National Capital Regional (NCR) as an area of interest. The aggregated data from the National Capital Region (NCR) was chosen and used in this study.  Results of the study show an erratic trend on the number of 4Ps beneficiaries in the National Capital Region and when disaggregated by years, sex, provinces, and age group.  The NCR 2nd and 3rd Districts have the highest number of 4Ps beneficiaries representing NCR, with 30%-31%, while the lowest provinces which are 1st and 4th districts range from 19%-20%. In terms of sex, 93% are female beneficiaries while 7% are male ones from 2015-2018 only because starting 2019 to 2021, the proportion of both sexes became stable and stays with 90% for female grantees and 10% for male grantees. The age group with the least grantee is 18 years old and below, which equates to around 1-2% per year.  Further, a "high level" of health compliance among the child monitored 4Ps beneficiaries was observed in 2015 (90%), 2018 (91%), 2019 (93%), and 2020 (97%). It was then concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic had not affected the number of child and adult 4Ps beneficiaries. Interestingly, under 5 mortality rates have significantly reduced from 2015 to the 1st quarter of 2021.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
Funda Şahin ◽  
Yusuf Yanar

Abstract Background Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), isolated from soil samples collected from Ordu Province, Turkey, was evaluated on the second-instar larvae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory conditions. Results Firstly, single-concentration response tests were conducted in order to determine the efficacy of the 64 isolates on S. littoralis larvae at the concentration of 1 × 108 conidia/ml. The five isolates displaying the highest mortality rates in single-concentration response tests, ORU-50, ORM-40, ORP-13, ORP-27 and ORM-48 (which included Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium brunneum and Clonostachys rogersoniana), were subjected to concentration–response tests at the concentrations of 1 × 105–1 × 109 conidia/ml. The lowest LC50 and LC90 values were recorded at ORP-27 with 1.68 × 107 and 4.60 × 108 conidia/ml, respectively, followed by ORP-13 and ORM-40. Conclusions Accordingly, it was found that M. brunneum isolates were more effective than B. bassiana and C. rogersoniana against S. littoralis larvae. ORP-27, ORP-13 and ORM-40 of M. brunneum isolates can be a potential biological control agent used against S. littoralis larvae.

Diabetologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Mohammed K. Ali ◽  
Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard ◽  
Elizabeth Selvin ◽  
Edward W. Gregg

AbstractInternational trends in traditional diabetes complications (cardiovascular, renal, peripheral vascular, ophthalmic, hepatic or neurological diseases) and mortality rates are poorly characterised. An earlier review of studies published up to 2015 demonstrated that most data come from a dozen high-income countries (HICs) in North America, Europe or the Asia–Pacific region and that, in these countries at least, rates of acute glycaemic fluctuations needing medical attention and amputations, myocardial infarction and mortality were all declining over the period. Here, we provide an updated review of published literature on trends in type 2 diabetes complications and mortality in adults since 2015. We also discuss issues related to data collection, analysis and reporting that have influenced global trends in type 2 diabetes and its complications. We found that most data on trends in type 2 diabetes, its complications and mortality come from a small number of HICs with comprehensive surveillance systems, though at least some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from Africa and Latin America are represented in this review. The published data suggest that HICs have experienced declines in cardiovascular complication rates and all-cause mortality in people with diabetes. In parallel, cardiovascular complications and mortality rates in people with diabetes have increased over time in LMICs. However, caution is warranted in interpreting trends from LMICs due to extremely sparse data or data that are not comparable across countries. We noted that approaches to case ascertainment and definitions of complications and mortality (numerators) and type 2 diabetes (the denominator) vary widely and influence the interpretation of international data. We offer four key recommendations to more rigorously document trends in rates of type 2 diabetes complications and mortality, over time and worldwide: (1) increasing investments in data collection systems; (2) standardising case definitions and approaches to ascertainment; (3) strengthening analytical capacity; and (4) developing and implementing structured guidelines for reporting of data. Graphical abstract

Sun Yong Lee ◽  
Isabel E. Allen ◽  
Celso Diaz ◽  
Xiaofan Guo ◽  
Cara Pellegrini ◽  

Abstract Background Rotating and laser sheaths are both routinely used in transvenous lead extraction (TLE) which can lead to catastrophic complications including death. The efficacy and risk of each approach are uncertain. To perform a meta-analysis to compare success and mortality rates associated with rotating and laser sheaths. Methods We searched electronic academic databases for case series of consecutive patients and randomized controlled trials published 1998–2017 describing the use of rotating and laser sheaths for TLE. Among 48 studies identified, rotating sheaths included 1,094 patients with 1,955 leads in 14 studies, and laser sheaths included 7,775 patients with 12,339 leads in 34 studies. Patients receiving rotating sheaths were older (63 versus 60 years old) and were more often male (74% versus 72%); CRT-P/Ds were more commonly extracted using rotating sheaths (12% versus 7%), whereas ICDs were less common (37% versus 42%), p > 0.05 for all. Infection as an indication for lead extraction was higher in the rotating sheath group (59.8% versus 52.9%, p = 0.002). The mean time from initial lead implantation was 7.2 years for rotating sheaths and 6.3 years for laser sheaths (p > 0.05). Results Success rates for complete removal of transvenous leads were 95.1% in rotating sheaths and 93.4% in laser sheaths (p < 0.05). There was one death among 1,094 patients (0.09%) in rotating sheaths and 66 deaths among 7,775 patients (0.85%) in laser sheaths, translating to a 9.3-fold higher risk of death with laser sheaths (95% CI 1.3 to 66.9, p = 0.01). Conclusions Laser sheaths were associated with lower complete lead removal rate and a 9.3-fold higher risk of death.

KYAMC Journal ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 127-132
Sk Abdullah Al Mamun ◽  
Saiyeedur Rahman ◽  
Sayedur Rahman Sheikh ◽  
Abdul Wadud ◽  
Gobindo Gain

Background: Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for 10-15% of all strokes with higher mortality rates than cerebral infarction. Intracerebral hemorrhage has a reported 30-day mortality of 44% to 51%, with almost half of the death occurs within the first 48 hours. Advanced age, low level of consciousness, large volume of hemorrhage has been linked with poor outcome. Objectives: To predict early outcome of hemorrhagic stroke patient in relation with age, Glasgow Coma Scale, volume of hemorrhage and ventricular extension. Materials and Methods: Hospital based prospective study carried out in hundred hemorrhagic stroke patients. The formula of ABC/2 was used to calculate hemorrhage volume in bedside by using CT scan. Results: 1st month mortality rates of hemorrhagic stroke was 44% with 45.45% of patients died within the first 48 hours of onset. Mean age of patients of hemorrhagic stroke was 61.2 ± 13.88 years. Mortality rate of intracerebral hemorrhage after age of 60 was 51.06% in 1st month. Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage was the strongest predictor of both 48 hours and 30 days mortality. Using three categories of intracerebral hemorrhage (X for < 30 ml, Y for 30 - 50 ml and Z for > 50 ml group) calculated by ABC/2 formula showed 100% mortality rate in Z group, 50% in Y group and only 12% mortality rate in X group in 1st month. Among all death, 61.5% of Z group 25% of Y group and 16.67% of patients of X group died within 48 hours. Two categories of Glasgow Coma Scale (≤ 8 and ≥ 9) were used and shown death rates 80.77% in GCS ≤ 8 and 4.55% in GCS ≥ 9 in 1st month. Conclusion: Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage in combination with advanced age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale is a powerful and easy to use in both 48 hours and 1st month mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. KYAMC Journal. 2021;12(3): 127-132

2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (6) ◽  
pp. 72-77
E.G. Gumeniuk ◽  
M.E. Ukvalberg ◽  

Maternal neonatal listeriosis is less common desease, but contributes significantly to neonatal and infant mortality rates. The survey presents data on the the pathogen, epidemiology of the disease, and risk factors. Attention is paid to the pathogenesis of the development of this intrauterine infection. The emphasis is placed on the development of neonatal (congenital) listeriosis, as well as the risk of serious complications for the child. The article describes the symptoms of the disease at early and late manifestation, variants of the clinical course, the results of autopsy of dead newborns. Attention is drawn to the problems of treatment and prevention of neonatal listeriosis. Doctors of related specialties (obstetricians-gynecologists, neonatologists, pediatricians) should have up-to-date information about this disease.

2021 ◽  
pp. 104973232110456
Mary Cwik ◽  
S. Benjamin Doty ◽  
Alexandra Hinton ◽  
Novalene Goklish ◽  
Jerreed Ivanich ◽  

Relative to the general population, Native Americans (NA) bear a disproportionate burden of suicide-related mortality rates. NA males and females aged 15 to 24 years experience suicide rates nearly 3 times than the U.S. all races rates in this age group. Although efforts have been made to understand and reduce suicide in tribal communities, a large portion has focused on individual characteristics with less attention given to social factors that may also inform suicide. This article aims to build on a local conceptual model of NA youth suicide by examining additional potential social factors through qualitative interviews. Findings from the thematic analysis resulted in the identification of seven perceived social influences: contagion, violence and abuse, discrimination and bullying, negative expectations, spirituality, social support, and cultural strengths. Public health approaches to reduce suicide should consider local social factors that resonate with tribal communities to build resilience.

2021 ◽  
Dina Voeltz ◽  
Thaddäus Tönnies ◽  
Ralph Brinks ◽  
Annika Hoyer

Background: Accurate projections of the future number of people with chronic diseases are necessary for effective resource allocation and health care planning in response to changes in disease burden. Aim: To introduce and compare different projection methods to estimate the number of people with diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Germany in 2040. Methods: We compare three methods to project the number of males with T2D in Germany in 2040. Method 1) simply combines the sex- and age-specific prevalence of T2D in 2010 with future population distributions projected by the German Federal Statistical Office (FSO). Methods 2) and 3) additionally account for the incidence of T2D and mortality rates using partial differential equations (PDEs). Method 2) models the prevalence of T2D employing a scalar PDE which incorporates incidence and mortality rates. Subsequently, the estimated prevalence is applied to the population projection of the FSO. Method 3) uses a two-dimensional system of PDEs and estimates future case numbers directly while future mortality of people with and without T2D is modelled independently from the projection of the FSO. Results: Method 1) projects 3.6 million male people with diagnosed T2D in Germany in 2040. Compared to 2.8 million males in 2010, this equals an increase by 29%. Methods 2) and 3) project 5.9 million (+104% compared to 2010) and 6.0 million (+116%) male T2D patients, respectively. Conclusions: The results of the three methods differ substantially. It appears that ignoring temporal trends in incidence and mortality may result in misleading projections of the future number of people with chronic diseases. Hence, it is essential to include these rates as is done by method 2) and 3).

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Jorge Fernando Camacho ◽  
Cruz Vargas-De-León

In this paper, we study a modified SIRI model without vital dynamics, based on a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, for epidemics that exhibit partial immunity after infection, reinfection, and disease-induced death. This model can be applied to study epidemics caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses, since there is the possibility that, in diseases caused by these pathogens, individuals recovered from the infection have a decrease in their immunity and can be reinfected. On the other hand, it is known that, in populations infected by these coronaviruses, individuals with comorbidities or older people have significant mortality rates or deaths induced by the disease. By means of qualitative methods, we prove that such system has an endemic equilibrium and an infinite line of nonhyperbolic disease-free equilibria, we determine the local and global stability of these equilibria, and we also show that it has no periodic orbits. Furthermore, we calculate the basic reproductive number R 0 and find that the system exhibits a forward bifurcation: disease-free equilibria are stable when R 0 < 1 / σ and unstable when R 0 > 1 / σ , while the endemic equilibrium consist of an asymptotically stable upper branch that appears from R 0 > 1 / σ , σ being the rate that quantifies reinfection. We also show that this system has two conserved quantities. Additionally, we show some of the most representative numerical solutions of this system.

2021 ◽  
pp. 152660282110594
Christos Argyriou ◽  
Stavros Spiliopoulos ◽  
Konstantinos Katsanos ◽  
Nikolaos Papatheodorou ◽  
Miltos K. Lazarides ◽  

Purpose: Thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has emerged as an attractive alternative option in the treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) diseases, reporting lower morbidity and mortality rates compared with open or hybrid repair. A challenging situation arises when the aneurysm involves the celiac artery (CA), precluding a safe distal landing zone. We investigated the safety and efficacy of CA coverage in the treatment of complex TAAA diseases during endovascular management. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The electronic bibliographic sources searched were MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. Primary outcomes of interest were perioperative and 30-day mortality. Any type of endoleak, mesenteric ischemia, perioperative spinal cord ischemia, and reintervention rates were secondary end points. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Summary statistics of event risks were expressed as proportions and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Ten observational cohort studies published between 2009 and 2020, reporting a total of 175 patients, were eligible for quantitative synthesis. Indications for TEVAR were primary TAAAs in 82% of patients, aortic dissection in 14% of patients, type Ib endoleak after previous endograft deployment in 3% of patients, and penetrating aortic ulcer in 1 patient. Reintervention rate was 9% (95% CI, 4%–20%) and spinal cord ischemia was 7% (95% CI, 4%–-12%). Type II endoleak was the predominant type of endoleak in 10% of patients (95% CI, 4%–22%), followed by type I endoleak in 5% of patients (95% CI, 2%–12%) and type III endoleak in 1% (95% CI, 0%–16%) of patients. Mesenteric ischemia occurred in 6% of patients (95% CI, 3%–10%). Thirty-day mortality was 5% (95% CI, 2%–13%) and the pooled estimate for overall mortality was 21% (95% CI, 14%–31%). Conclusions: Celiac artery coverage during TEVAR is a challenging but feasible option for the treatment of TAAA diseases, providing acceptable morbidity and mortality rates. Demonstration of adequate visceral collateral pathways before definitive CA coverage is the sine quo non for the success of the technique.

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