The present investigation deals with the oestrogen-sensitivity of the female reproductive system during the neonatal period. Newborn female guinea pigs were used as test animals. At different times after a single subcutaneous injection of a physiological dose of 0.1 μg or an unphysiologically high dose of 10 μg 17β-oestradiol/100 g body weight, the RNA- and protein-synthesis was examined in the hypothalamic region, pituitary, cerebral cortex, liver, adrenal gland, ovary and uterus. With a physiological dose an increase in organ weight, protein content, RNA-and protein-synthesis was found only in the uterus. These alterations turned out to be dose-dependent. In addition to the findings in the uterus an inhibition of the aminoacid incorporation rate occurred in the liver following the injection of the high oestradiol dose. As early as 1 hour after the administration of 0.1 μg 17β-oestradiol an almost 100% increase in uterine protein synthesis was detectable. This result demonstrates a high oestrogen-sensitivity of this organ during the neonatal period. All the other organs of the female reproductive system such as the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary did not show any oestrogen response. Therefore the functional immaturity of the uterus during post partem life is not the result of a deficient hormone sensitivity but is correlated with the absence of a sufficient hormonal stimulus at this time. The investigation on the effects of actinomycin resulted in different reactions in the uterus and liver. In contrast to the liver a paradoxical actinomycin effect was found in the uterus after treatment with actinomycin alone. This effect is characterized by a small inhibition of RNA-synthesis and a 50% increase in protein synthesis. The treatment of the newborn test animals with actinomycin and 17β-oestradiol together abolished the oestrogen-induced stimulation of the uterine RNA-and protein-synthesis. Consequently, the effect of oestrogens during the neonatal period is also connected with the formation of new proteins via an increased DNA-directed RNA-synthesis.
Currently, there are no standard approaches to monitoring patients with ovarian cancer (OC). While the role of ultrasound (US) has been identified in the primary diagnosis of OS, it is still controversial during the subsequent surgical treatment of OC. In world statistics, ovarian cancer is consistently among the four main localizations of malignant tumors of the female reproductive system, along with tumors of the breast, body and cervix.
Background: HER2-based retargeted viruses are in advanced phases of preclinical development of breast cancer models. Mesothelin (MSLN) is a cell-surface tumor antigen expressed in different subtypes of breast and non-breast cancer. Its recent identification as a marker of some triple-negative breast tumors renders it an attractive target, presently investigated in clinical trials employing antibody drug conjugates and CAR-T cells. The availability of MSLN-retargeted oncolytic viruses may complement the current immunotherapeutic panel of biological drugs against HER2-negative breast and non-breast tumors. Methods: A fully virulent, tumor-targeted oncolytic Herpes simplex virus-1 (MSLN-THV) with a selectivity for mesothelin-expressing cancer cells was generated. Recombineering technology was used to replace an essential moiety of the viral glycoprotein D with antibody fragments derived from clinically validated MSLN monoclonal antibodies, and to allow IL12 cargo expression in infected cells. Panels of breast and female reproductive system cell lines were used to verify the oncolytic potential of the viral constructs. A platform for production of the retargeted viruses was developed in HEK 293 cells, providing stable expression of a suitable chimeric receptor. Results: We demonstrated the selectivity of viral infection and cytotoxicity by MSLN-retargeted viruses in a panel of mesothelin-positive cancer cells, originating from breast and female reproductive system tumors. We also developed a second-generation oncolytic MSLN-THV, encoding IL12, to enhance the immunotherapeutic potential of the viral backbone. A non-tumor cell line expressing a chimeric MSLN/Nectin-1 receptor, de-sensitized from antiviral responses by genetic inactivation of the Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING)-dependent pathway was engineered, to optimize viral yields. Conclusions: Our proof-of-concept study proposes MSLN-retargeted herpesviruses as potential cancer immunotherapeutics for assessments in preclinical models of MSLN-positive tumors, complementing the available panel of oncolytic viruses to HER2-negative breast tumors.
AbstractThe type species of the genus Butlerius, viz., B. butleri Goodey, 1929, is redescribed and illustrated from specimens collected in South Korea. Additional information is provided for the cuticle, stoma structure, female reproductive system and the male caudal region. The Korean population is 1336-1857 μm long, a = 33.9-43.5, b = 5.41-6.34, c = 3.38-4.20, c′ = 14.13-19.0 and V = 40-45%. Males have spicules 39-49 μm long and a gubernaculum 25-33 μm long. There are nine pairs of genital papillae, three pairs precloacal and six pairs postcloacal. The v5,6,7 clusters are widely separated, one group situated just posterior to the phasmids and the other group at level of pd. Although there are some differences in morphometrics as compared with the type population, the species is easily identified by the similarities in the structure of the stoma, pharynx, spicules and gubernaculum. Butlerius singularis and B. filicaudatus are proposed as synonyms of the type species.