neonatal period
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 176
Irina Anatolyevna Andrievskaya ◽  
Irina Valentinovna Zhukovets ◽  
Inna Victorovna Dovzhikova ◽  
Nataliya Alexandrovna Ishutina ◽  
Ksenia Konstantinovna Petrova

The goal of this research was to evaluate seropositivity to HSV-1 among pregnant women and its effect on the course of pregnancy, childbirth and the condition of newborns. Methods: The serological status, socio-demographic characteristics, parity of pregnancy and childbirth and condition of newborns in women seronegative and seropositive to HSV-1 with recurrent infection and its latent course during pregnancy were analyzed. Newborns from these mothers made up the corresponding groups. Results: Low titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with threatened miscarriage, anemia in pregnancy and chronic placental insufficiency. High titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the second trimester of pregnancy are associated with late miscarriages and premature births, anemia in pregnancy, chronic placental insufficiency, labor anomalies, early neonatal complications (cerebral ischemia, respiratory distress syndrome) and localized skin rashes. Low titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the third trimester of pregnancy are associated with premature birth, anemia in pregnancy, chronic placental insufficiency, endometritis, complications of the early neonatal period and localized skin rashes. Conclusions: Our research showed that low or high titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1, determined by the timing of recurrence of infection during pregnancy, are associated with a high incidence of somatic pathology and complications in pregnancy, childbirth and the neonatal period.

2022 ◽  
pp. 538-540
Vidisha Singh ◽  
Alka Agrawal ◽  
Kailash Chandra Aggarwal

Ellis Van Creveld, a syndrome comprising of chondrodysplasia, bilateral polydactyly of the hands with skeletal abnormalities, and congenital heart defect is a rare autosomal recessive disease. The prevalence of the disease in the world is 1/6000–20,000 newborns. In the Indian population, it is difficult to estimate the exact prevalence of the disease but, it is mostly seen in the Amish population. The cardinal features are short stature, dysplastic nails and teeth, polydactyly, narrow chest, and heart defects. The crucial differentials are Jeune dystrophy, Weyers syndrome, and McKusick-Kaufman syndrome. Here, we report a neonate, born of a non-consanguineous marriage with a syndromic appearance consisting of a bell-shaped chest, polydactyly, natal teeth, and single atrium. Prognosis is related to respiratory and heart defects in the early neonatal period.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-3
Mohammad Nasir Hematian ◽  
Kamran Hessami ◽  
Maasoumeh Saleh ◽  
Abolfazl Shirdel Abdolmaleki ◽  
Shirin Torabi ◽  

Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the heart is a rare nonneoplastic cardiac mass that may exhibit symptoms resembling malignancy. In this report, we presented a 4-month-old male baby with repeated attacks of cyanosis and a cardiac murmur. Echocardiography revealed a tumoral noncircumscribed mass in the right atrium adhering to the interatrial septum which extends to the inferior vena cava. Cardiac exploration was carried out to excise the tumor. A histopathological study demonstrated the presence of thrombus-like tissue with extensive calcification and foreign body type giant cell reactions. After operation, the patient had an uneventful hospitalization. Although CAT is mainly diagnosed in adult patients, it should be considered in the causes of cardiac mass in the neonatal period.

Alison Morag Campbell ◽  
Mahmoud Motawea ◽  
Wayne Fradley ◽  
Sean Marven

Abstract Aim In our practice, preformed silos are routine rather than reserved for difficult cases. We aimed to identify whether silo and bedside closure can minimize: general anesthetic (GA) exposure, need for intubation and ventilation, or days intubated for neonates with simple gastroschisis (SG). Methods After approval, patients were identified via the neonatal discharge log (April 2010 to April 2019). Data were collected by case-note review and analyzed with respect to GA, ventilation, and core outcomes. Results Of 104 patients (50 female, mean birth weight 2.43 kg, mean gestational age 36 + 2 weeks), 85 were SG and 19 complex. Silo application was initial management in 70 SG, 57 completed successful bedside closure (by day 4 of life—median). Fifteen SG had initial operative closure.Of the 70 SG managed with silo, 46 (66%) had no GA as neonates. Twelve required GA for line insertion. Thirteen patients with initial silo had closure in theater (7 opportunistic at time of GA for line). Nine required intubation and ventilation out-with the operating theater during neonatal management. Seven had already been intubated at delivery; 3 because of meconium aspiration.One-hundred percent of those treated with operative closure had GA, 1 patient subsequently required surgery for subglottic stenosis. Time to full feeds did not differ between groups. Conclusion Silo and bedside closure allow the majority of SG neonates to avoid GA or intubation in the neonatal period, without increased risk of complication. However, it is important that the nursing expertise required to manage these patients safely is not underestimated.

2022 ◽  
Chun-Hong Jia ◽  
Zhou-Shan Feng ◽  
Xiao-Jun Lin ◽  
Qi-Liang Cui ◽  
Sha-Sha Han ◽  

Abstract Background With the increase in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, their outcomes received special attention. However, in China, studies of the outcomes of ELBW infants are rare. Methods The hospitalized records of ELBW infants discharged from twenty-six neonatal intensive care units were reviewed and analyzed. Results A total of 2575 ELBW infants were enrolled and the overall survival rate was 55.11%. From 2008 to 2017, the number of ELBW infants increased rapidly from 91 to 466, and the survival rate improved steadily from 41.76–62.02%. The survival rate rose with increasing BW, the ascending level of regional economic development and specialist hospitals. The incidence of complications was neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (85.2%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (63.7%), retinopathy of prematurity (39.3%), intraventricular hemorrhage (29.4%), necrotizing enterocolitis (12.0%), and periventricular leukomalacia (8.0%). Among the 1156 nonsurvivors, 90.0% of infants died during the neonatal period (≤ 28 days), and the other died after the neonatal period. A total of 768 ELBW infants died after medical care withdrawal, with economic factors and expected outcome being important causes. Conclusion The number of ELBW infants is increasing in China, and the overall survival rate is still low but is improving steadily.

2022 ◽  
pp. 80-84
E. V. Antsiferova ◽  
T. E. Taranushenko ◽  
N. G. Kiseleva ◽  
E. A. Belyaeva ◽  
T. I. Donskaya

Objective: The analysis of clinical-laboratory peculiarities and the dynamics of glycemia clarifying the terms of blood glucose stabilization during the early neonatal period in children having risk factors of the development of such state.Methods: Open, retrospective , continuous, single-center study was conducted. It was aimed at getting preliminary data that is important for planning further tactics of examining newborns having risk factors on hypoglycemia development (kids having large body weight at birth, children whose mothers have diabetes, newborns having intrauterine growth retardation).The target group of the survey included 522 newborns of both genders in the early neonatal period (from 0 to 7 days of life).Results: There is data on the frequency of first indicated hypoglycemia in newborns having risk factors of the development of such state, clinicallaboratory peculiarities, the dynamics of glycemia during early neonatal period, and also the period of blood glucose stabilization (the age of reaching normoglycemia). Neonatal hypoglycemia was detected in 40.2% of examined children. Laboratory manifestation during the first day of life was noticed 62.9% of cases with the further normalization of glucose level in blood in 24 hours in 73.3% of newborns. Significant reduction of blood glucose was observed in 54.8% of cases requiring hypoglycemia therapy with parenteral prescription of 10% glucose solution. Hypoglycemia jugulated against oral correction of 5% glucoses solution in 40.5 % of cases. 4.8% of children got the level of glucose stabilized after introduction of supplementary feeding.Conclusion: The results of the newborns having risk factors on hypoglycemia development (kids having large body weight at birth, children whose mothers have diabetes, newborns having intrauterine growth retardation) examinations are presented. The peculiarities of neonatal hypoglycemia are: the absence of a typical clinical symptoms among 89% of children. Asymptomatic course of hypoglycemia confirms the importance and necessity of glycemia monitoring in the early neonatal period in order to conduct timely and adequate therapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 80 (1) ◽  
David Teye Doku

Abstract Background Neonatal mortality in many low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains high despite global efforts at addressing this challenge. Tackling neonatal death in LMICs is further complicated by lack of reliable data from individual countries in the region to inform effective context specific interventions. This study investigates the probability of neonatal survival and socio-demographic risk factors of neonatal mortality in Ghana. Methods Pooled data from three population-based surveys (N = 12,148) were analysed using multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards regression models. Results The risk of dying within the first 28 days of life was highest in the first week of life (early neonatal period), it then decreases sharply around the middle of the second week of life and remains low over the late neonatal period. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) showed that: rural residency (HR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.75); birth order 2-3 (HR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.10-2.42); birth order ≥7 (HR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.07-3.33) increased the risk of neonatal death. Additionally, children born to women who were obese had higher risk of neonatal death (HR = 1.69, CI: 1.12-2.56) compared with those of women with optimal weight. Disparities in the risk of neonatal death by geographical regions were also found. Conclusion The risk of neonatal mortality is highest during the first week of life and it is socio-demographically patterned. The findings emphasise the need to tackle socio-demographic risk factors of neonatal mortality in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal 3, which is aimed at reducing neonatal mortality to 12 per 1000 live births by the year 2030.

Vicente Rey y Formoso ◽  
Ricardo Barreto Mota ◽  
Henrique Soares

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chao Yang ◽  
Tianxi Zhang ◽  
Quanhua Tian ◽  
Yan Cheng ◽  
Kefyalew Gebeyew ◽  

Successful establishment of passive immunity (PIT) and regulation of intestinal microbiota are crucial for ruminants to maintain body health and reduce the risk of disease during the neonatal period. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on passive transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG), serum inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant levels as well as bacteria composition in the ileal digesta. A total of 14 healthy neonatal Ganxi black goats with similar birth weight (BW: 2.35 ± 0.55 kg) were selected and allocated into two groups, only fed colostrum and milk replacer (CON, n = 7) and supplemented MOS (0.06% of birth BW) in the colostrum and milk replacer (MOS, n = 7). The results indicated that MOS supplementation significantly reduced (p < 0.05) serum IgG level at 3 and 6 h after colostrum feeding. Serum GLP-1 level of goats in the MOS group was significantly lower (p = 0.001) than that in the CON group. Goats in the MOS group had higher serum CAT and lower MDA level than those in the CON group (p < 0.05). Serum anti-inflammatory cytokine level of interleukin 4 (IL-4) was increased (p < 0.05), while pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 level was reduced (p < 0.05) in the MOS group when compared with the CON group. In addition, MOS supplementation remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the level of secretory IgA (sIgA) in the ileal digesta. Principal coordinate analysis of 16S rRNA sequence based on Brinary jaccard, Bray curtis, and weighted UniFrac distance of ileal microbiota showed a distinct microbial differentiation between the CON and MOS groups (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Firmicutes in the MOS group was higher than that in the CON group, while the abundance of Verrucomicrobia was lower in the MOS group than that in the CON group at the phylum level (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Proteobacteria tended to decrease (p = 0.078) in the MOS group at the phylum level. The results of LEfSe analysis showed that MOS group was characterized by a higher relative abundance of Lactobacillus, while the CON group was represented by a higher relative abundance of Akkermansia and Ruminiclostridium_5. Our findings demonstrated that MOS supplementation during the neonatal period increases antioxidant capacity and reduces the inflammatory response, and promotes IgA secretion and Lactobacillus colonization in the ileum. Thus, MOS induced positive effects are more pronounced in neonatal goats that might be an effective approach to maintain intestinal health and improve the surviving rate of neonatal ruminants.

Biomedicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (4) ◽  
pp. 732-736
Varashree B. S. ◽  
Sravya Poduri ◽  
Leslie Edward Lewis ◽  
Vijetha Shenoy Belle

Introduction and Aim: Neonatal seizure is an age specific neurological emergency. Their unique pathophysiological mechanism has become subject of interest for many research studies. The recurrence risk for seizures is high during neonatal period and currently used treatment strategies have limited efficacy in preventing it. From past decades although the treatment has not changed, there is a gradual progress in various mechanisms that are involved in generation of seizures and their response to anti-epileptics. With the emergence of new biochemical parameters for risk assessment in patients with seizures, there is a strong need for their comparative evaluation in order to evaluate their potential clinical application. So, this study was carried out to compare the urine levels of taurine, dopamine and fucose in assessing their role in mechanism of seizure.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining ethical approval and consent from parents total 43 neonates, urine taurine, dopamine and fucose were measured in 24 cases of seizures and 19 apparently healthy normal controls. Dopamine and Taurine were measured using ELISA and L-fucose by Dische and Shettles method.   Results: The median level of urine fucose was significantly higher in male neonates, taurine was significantly decreased in cases compared to that of controls. Males had higher preponderance to develop seizures. The median levels of urine dopamine were high in cases compared to controls but has not showed any significance.   Conclusion: Amino acid like taurine, carbohydrate moiety like fucose and a neuromodulator like dopamine may have a mechanistic role in development of seizures in neonatal period.

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