preclinical development
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2022 ◽  
Michael J. Koren ◽  
Patrick Maurice Moriarty ◽  
Seth J. Baum ◽  
Joel Neutel ◽  
Martha Hernandez-Illas ◽  

Ignacio Rodríguez‐Izquierdo ◽  
Daniel Sepúlveda‐Crespo ◽  
Jose María Lasso ◽  
Salvador Resino ◽  
Ma Ángeles Muñoz‐Fernández

2022 ◽  
Jesus Augusto Vazquez-Rodriguez ◽  
Bahaa Shaqour ◽  
Clara Guarch-Perez ◽  
Emilia Choinska ◽  
Martijn Riool ◽  

Biomaterial-associated infections are a major healthcare challenge as they are responsible for high disease burden in critically ill patients. In this study, we have developed drug-eluting antibacterial catheters to prevent catheter-related infections. Niclosamide (NIC), originally a well-studied antiparasitic drug, was incorporated into the polymeric matrix of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) via solvent casting, and catheters were fabricated using hot-melt extrusion technology. The mechanical and physicochemical properties of TPU polymers loaded with NIC were studied. NIC was released in a sustained manner from the catheters and exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in different in vitro models. Moreover, the antibacterial efficacy of NIC-loaded catheters was validated in an in vivo biomaterial-associated infection mouse model using a methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strain of S. aureus. The released NIC from the produced catheters reduced bacterial colonization of the catheter as well as of the surrounding tissue. A sustained in vivo release of NIC from the catheters for at least 14 days was observed. In summary, the NIC-releasing hot-melt extruded catheters prevented implant colonization and reduced the bacterial colonization of peri-catheter tissue by methicillin sensitive as well as resistant S. aureus in a biomaterial-associated infection mouse model and has good prospects for preclinical development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gareth Morris ◽  
Mona Heiland ◽  
Kai Lamottke ◽  
Haifeng Guan ◽  
Thomas D. M. Hill ◽  

Drug-resistant epilepsy remains a significant clinical and societal burden, with one third of people with epilepsy continuing to experience seizures despite the availability of around 30 anti-seizure drugs (ASDs). Further, ASDs often have substantial adverse effects, including impacts on learning and memory. Therefore, it is important to develop new ASDs, which may be more potent or better tolerated. Here, we report the preliminary preclinical evaluation of BICS01, a synthetic product based on a natural compound, as a potential ASD. To model seizure-like activity in vitro, we prepared hippocampal slices from adult male Sprague Dawley rats, and elicited epileptiform bursting using high extracellular potassium. BICS01 (200 μM) rapidly and reversibly reduced the frequency of epileptiform bursting but did not change broad measures of network excitability or affect short-term synaptic facilitation. BICS01 was well tolerated following systemic injection at up to 1,000 mg/kg. However, we did not observe any protective effect of systemic BICS01 injection against acute seizures evoked by pentylenetetrazol. These results indicate that BICS01 is able to acutely reduce epileptiform activity in hippocampal networks. Further preclinical development studies to enhance pharmacokinetics and accumulation in the brain, as well as studies to understand the mechanism of action, are now required.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
pp. e1010124
Laura E. de Vries ◽  
Matteo Lunghi ◽  
Aarti Krishnan ◽  
Taco W. A. Kooij ◽  
Dominique Soldati-Favre

The Apicomplexa phylum comprises thousands of distinct intracellular parasite species, including coccidians, haemosporidians, piroplasms, and cryptosporidia. These parasites are characterized by complex and divergent life cycles occupying a variety of host niches. Consequently, they exhibit distinct adaptations to the differences in nutritional availabilities, either relying on biosynthetic pathways or by salvaging metabolites from their host. Pantothenate (Pan, vitamin B5) is the precursor for the synthesis of an essential cofactor, coenzyme A (CoA), but among the apicomplexans, only the coccidian subgroup has the ability to synthesize Pan. While the pathway to synthesize CoA from Pan is largely conserved across all branches of life, there are differences in the redundancy of enzymes and possible alternative pathways to generate CoA from Pan. Impeding the scavenge of Pan and synthesis of Pan and CoA have been long recognized as potential targets for antimicrobial drug development, but in order to fully exploit these critical pathways, it is important to understand such differences. Recently, a potent class of pantothenamides (PanAms), Pan analogs, which target CoA-utilizing enzymes, has entered antimalarial preclinical development. The potential of PanAms to target multiple downstream pathways make them a promising compound class as broad antiparasitic drugs against other apicomplexans. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the Pan and CoA biosynthesis pathways, and the suitability of these pathways as drug targets in Apicomplexa, with a particular focus on the cyst-forming coccidian, Toxoplasma gondii, and the haemosporidian, Plasmodium falciparum.

2021 ◽  
pp. molcanther.0455.2021
Jennifer R. Diamond ◽  
Todd M. Pitts ◽  
Dana Ungermannova ◽  
Christopher G Nasveschuk ◽  
Gan Zhang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Hui Liu ◽  
Tingting Luo ◽  
Feifei Wu ◽  
Baolin Guo ◽  
Kunlong Zhang ◽  

Abstract We know little about how mitochondrial dynamics regulates in the Purkinje cells. To explore it, we first set up the Gad2-cre:ZsGreen-tdTomatofl/fl mice where Purkinje cells expressed tdTomato in the cerebellum. Secondly, double stainings verified tdTomato cells were Calbinin (CB)-positive Purkinje cells, but colocalized neither with astrocyte marker GFAP nor with microglia marker Iba1. Thirdly, application of RNAscope in situ hybridization with the identification of mRNAs of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), calcium transporter (Mcu and Nclx) and uncoupling proteins (Ucp2 and Ucp4) were used onto Purkinje cells for specific spatial analysis. Our findings demonstrated that Mfn2 mRNAs expression was evident in Purkinje cells. And few expressions of Ucp4 mRNAs were presented in dendritic shafts of Purkinje cells. It should be noted that Mcu, Nclx, and Ucp2 mRNAs expression were only scattered on both soma and dendrites in Purkinje cells. The double RNAscope profiling of mitochondrial molecules showed Mfn1 mRNAs are presented only in the soma of the Purkinje cells. Double RNAscope showed none of Drp1 mRNAs were co-localized with Mcu mRNAs, as well as almost none of Ucp2 mRNAs were co-localized with Mfn2 mRNAs. All of these results showed the mitochondrial Drp1/Mfn2/Ucp4 convergence on the Purkinje cells. Finally, present research focuses on developing new and more specific molecules tuning the activity of the Purkinje cells activate or inactivate and opening therapeutic windows for Purkinje cells-related diseases. The molecular identification of potential drug targets, mechanism of action, and structural basis of their activity will crucially enable preclinical development.

Hao Xie ◽  
Junjia Liu ◽  
Diego M. Alem Glison ◽  
Jason B. Fleming

Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) are a class of small molecules designed to target proteins for degradation. Their novel and unique modes of action provide PROTACs with the potential for their application in the management of both solid and hematologic malignancies. Since its initial discovery, the technology of targeted protein degradation, especially in the form of PROTACs, has had significant advances. A number of PROTACs have entered a late stage of preclinical development. Several of them are either in phase 1/2 clinical trials or approaching approval for initial clinical evaluation. This article discusses the preclinical and clinical findings of PROTACs of clinically relevant protein targets in cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 03 (04) ◽  
pp. e164-e182
Mpho Phehello Ngoepe ◽  
Hadley S. Clayton

AbstractMedicinal inorganic chemistry involving the utilization of metal-based compounds as therapeutics has become a field showing distinct promise. DNA and RNA are ideal drug targets for therapeutic intervention in the case of various diseases, such as cancer and microbial infection. Metals play a vital role in medicine, with at least 10 metals known to be essential for human life and a further 46 nonessential metals having been involved in drug therapies and diagnosis. These metal-based complexes interact with DNA in various ways, and are often delivered as prodrugs which undergo activation in vivo. Metal complexes cause DNA crosslinking, leading to the inhibition of DNA synthesis and repair. In this review, the various interactions of metal complexes with DNA nucleic acids, as well as the underlying mechanism of action, were highlighted. Furthermore, we also discussed various tools used to investigate the interaction between metal complexes and the DNA. The tools included in vitro techniques such as spectroscopy and electrophoresis, and in silico studies such as protein docking and density-functional theory that are highlighted for preclinical development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  

First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Disease Models & Mechanisms, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Chady Hakim is first author on ‘ Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle shows unexpected slow-to-fast fiber-type switch in Duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs’, published in DMM. Chady is a Research Assistant Professor in the lab of Dongsheng Duan at the University of Missouri, Colombia, MO, USA, investigating the preclinical development of gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), with a particular interest in using the canine DMD model.

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