Soft-computing modeling and multiresponse optimization for nutrient removal process from municipal wastewater using microalgae

2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 102490
S. M. Zakir Hossain ◽  
Nahid Sultana ◽  
Majeed S. Jassim ◽  
Gulnur Coskuner ◽  
Lujain M. Hazin ◽  
2009 ◽  
Vol 100 (13) ◽  
pp. 3180-3184 ◽  
Daekeun Kim ◽  
Keum-Yong Kim ◽  
Hong-Duck Ryu ◽  
Kyung-Kook Min ◽  
Sang-Ill Lee

2000 ◽  
Vol 41 (9) ◽  
pp. 281-289 ◽  
O. Nowak

Operating costs of Austrian municipal treatment plants are evaluated for 1989/90 and for 1997, respectively. The results indicate that presently the expenses which can be directly connected to wastewater purification, i.e. energy and chemicals for P removal, comprise only about 20% of the total operating costs. Today, in Austria like in other EU countries, the predominating factor is “labour costs”, even at nutrient removal plants. A general scheme for estimating operating costs is presented that can be applied to WWTPs in other parts of the world. In this scheme the important factors relevant to the operating costs are integrated.

2003 ◽  
Vol 47 (12) ◽  
pp. 125-132 ◽  
O. Nowak

The energy demand of municipal wastewater treatment plants for nutrient removal equipped with primary clarifiers, activated sludge system, anaerobic sludge digestion, and CHP is evaluated theoretically, on the basis of COD balances. Operational experience from energy-efficient Austrian treatment plants confirms that the demand on external electrical energy can be kept as low as 5 to 10 kWh/(pe.a) depending on the N:COD ratio in the raw wastewater. A low N:COD ratio helps to keep not only the effluent nitrogen load low, but also the energy demand. Measures to minimise the energy demand at treatment plants and to reduce the nitrogen load are discussed.

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