Removal Process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 102490
S. M. Zakir Hossain ◽  
Nahid Sultana ◽  
Majeed S. Jassim ◽  
Gulnur Coskuner ◽  
Lujain M. Hazin ◽  

2022 ◽  
Bruce R Hopenfeld

Background: Obtaining reliable rate heart estimates from waist based electrocardiograms (ECGs) poses a very challenging problem due to the presence of extreme motion artifacts. The literature reveals few, if any, attempts to apply motion artifact cancellation methods to waist based ECGs. This paper describes a new methodology for ameliorating the effects of motion artifacts in ECGs by specifically targeting ECG peaks for elimination that are determined to be correlated with accelerometer peaks. This peak space cancellation was applied to real world waist based ECGs. Algorithm Summary: The methodology includes successive applications of a previously described pattern-based heart beat detection scheme (Temporal Pattern Search, or TEPS) that can also detect patterns in other types of peak sequences. In the first application, TEPS is applied to accelerometer signals recorded contemporaneously with ECG signals to identify high-quality accelerometer peak sequences (SA) indicative of quasi-periodic motion likely to impair identification of peaks in a corresponding ECG signal. The process then performs ECG peak detection and locates the closest in time ECG peak to each peak in an SA. The differences in time between ECG and SA peaks are clustered. If the number of elements in a cluster of peaks in an SA exceeds a threshold, the ECG peaks in that cluster are removed from further processing. After this peak removal process, further QRS detection proceeds according to TEPS. Experiment: The above procedure was applied to data from real world experiments involving four sessions of walking and jogging on a dirt road for approximately 20-25 minutes. A compression shirt with textile electrodes served as the ground truth recording. A textile electrode based chest strap was worn around the waist to generate a single channel signal upon which to test peak space cancellation/TEPS. Results: Both walking and jogging heart rates were generally well tracked. In the four recordings, the percentage of 5 second segments within 10 beats/minute of reference was 96%, 99%, 92% and 96%. The percentage of segments within 5 beats/minute of reference was 86%, 90%, 82% and 78%. There was very good agreement between the RR intervals associated with the reference and waist recordings. For acceptable quality segments, the root mean square sum of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD) was calculated for both the reference and waist recordings. Next, the difference between waist and reference RMSSDs was calculated (∆RMSSD). The mean ∆RMSSD (over acceptable segments) was 4.6 m, 5.2 ms, 5.2 ms and 6.6 ms for the four recordings. Conclusion: Given that only one waist ECG channel was available, and that the strap used for the waist recording was not tailored for that purpose, the proposed methodology shows promise for waist based sinus rhythm QRS detection.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Weiran Chu ◽  
Yi Shi ◽  
Liang Zhang

As non-renewable resource, the recovery and utilization of phosphorus from wastewater is an enduring topic. Stimulated by the advances in research on polyphosphates (polyP) as well as the development of Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) technology to achieve the efficient accumulation of polyP via polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), a novel phosphorus removal strategy is considered with promising potential for application in real wastewater treatment processes. This review mainly focuses on the mechanism of phosphorus aggregation in the form of polyP during the phosphate removal process. Further discussion about the reuse of polyP with different chain lengths is provided herein so as to suggest possible application pathways for this biosynthetic product.

2022 ◽  
Wenwei Tang ◽  
Xiaoyu Jin ◽  
Yunying Liu ◽  
Mengtian Zhang ◽  
Xiaoxuan Li ◽  

Abstract The microbial manganese removal process is believed to be the catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) by manganese oxidase. In this study, the multicopper oxidase CopA was purified and found to have high manganese oxidation activity in vitro and Cu(II) can significantly enhance its manganese oxidation activity. The gene site-directed mutagenesis was used to mutate four conserved copper binding sites of CopA and then obtain four mutant strains. The manganese removal efficiency of the four strains was determined to find that H120 is the catalytic active site of the CopA. Protein modification analysis of CopA obtained under different conditions by mass spectrometry revealed that the loss of Cu(Ⅱ) and the mutation of the conserved copper binding site H120 resulted in the loss of modification of ethoxyformyl and quinone, the number of modifications was reduced and the position of modification was changed, eventually causing a decrease in protein activity. It reveals that Cu(II) and H120 play an indispensable role in the manganese oxidation of the multicopper oxidase CopA. The Mn valence state of BioMnOx was analyzed by XPS, finding that both the strain-mediated product and the CopA-mediated product were composed of MnO2 and Mn3O4 and the average valence of Mn is 3.2.

Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Huda S. Alhasan ◽  
Nadiyah Alahmadi ◽  
Suhad A. Yasin ◽  
Mohammed Y. Khalaf ◽  
Gomaa A. M. Ali

This work describes the hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (HAP) preparation from eggshell waste and their application as an adsorbent for Cephalexin (Ceph) antibiotic removal from aqueous solutions. Chemical precipitation with phosphoric acid was used to evaluate the feasibility of calcium oxide for HAP preparation. The structural properties of HAP were characterized by X-ray diffraction, which revealed the formation of the hydroxyapatite crystalline phase formation. In addition, transmitting electron spectroscopy showed an irregular shape with a variation in size. The impact of various experimental conditions on the removal efficiency such as the solution’s pH, contact time, HAP mass, solution temperature, and Ceph concentration were studied. Experimental data showed that HAP could remove most Ceph species from aqueous solutions within 1 h at pH = 7 with 70.70% adsorption efficiency utilizing 50 mg of the HAP. The removal process of Ceph species by HAP was kinetically investigated using various kinetic models, and the results showed the suitability of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model for the adsorption process description. Moreover, the removal process was thermodynamically investigated; the results showed that the removal was spontaneous endothermic and related to the randomness increase. The data confirmed that HAP had high efficiency in removing Ceph antibiotics from an aqueous solution.

10.5219/1711 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 15-26
Igor Palamarchuk ◽  
Oksana Zozulyak ◽  
Mikhailo Mushtruk ◽  
Ievgenii Petrychenko ◽  
Nataliia Slobodyanyuk ◽  

The process of intensifying dehydration of pectin-containing raw materials by using centrifugation with simultaneous application of low-frequency oscillations to the working container creates an electroosmotic effect in unilateral diffusion to improve the filtration process. It is established that to reduce the technological resistance in the presented methods; it is necessary to create a fluidized bed of products due to the oscillating motion of the working capacity. An experimental vibration unit has been developed to determine the rational parameters of the vibrocentric moisture removal process using the electroosmotic effect. It is proved that the complex of the designed equipment provides consecutive carrying out of three-stage vibration filtration-convective drying of high-moisture production by an alternation of action of a stream of the heat carrier, an electromagnetic field, low-frequency fluctuations. According to the research results, the dependences of the kinetics of the moisture diffusion process on the electric field strength are obtained; frequency of electric current and duty cycle of pulses, which allowed to optimize the process parameters according to the criteria of minimizing energy consumption. It was found that the processing time to achieve the desired humidity with the application of vibration, filtration, and electroosmotic effect was twice less than for filtration drying in a fixed bed. In combination with the noted physical and mechanical factors, the proposed technology improves the technical and economic parameters of the studied process.

2022 ◽  
Mike J. Newland ◽  
Camille Mouchel-Vallon ◽  
Richard Valorso ◽  
Bernard Aumont ◽  
Luc Vereecken ◽  

Abstract. Reaction with ozone is an important atmospheric removal process for alkenes. The ozonolysis reaction produces carbonyls, and carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates, CI), which can rapidly decompose to yield a range of closed shell and radical products, including OH radicals. Consequently, it is essential to accurately represent the complex chemistry of Criegee intermediates in atmospheric models in order to fully understand the impact of alkene ozonolysis on atmospheric composition. A mechanism construction protocol is presented which is suitable for use in automatic mechanism generation. The protocol defines the critical parameters for describing the chemistry following the initial reaction, namely: the primary carbonyl / CI yields from the primary ozonide fragmentation; the amount of stabilisation of the excited CI (CI*); the unimolecular decomposition pathways, rates and products of the CI; the bimolecular rates and products of atmospherically important reactions of the stabilised CI (SCI). This analysis implicitly predicts the yield of OH from the alkene-ozone reaction. A comprehensive database of experimental OH, SCI and carbonyl yields has been collated using reported values in the literature and used to assess the reliability of the protocol. The protocol provides estimates OH, SCI and carbonyl yields with a root mean square error of 0.13 and 0.12 and 0.14, respectively. Areas where new experimental and theoretical data would improve the protocol and its assessment are identified and discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Rong Zhu ◽  
Hailin Long ◽  
Haoyu Li ◽  
Huimin Xie ◽  
Shaohua Yin ◽  

In this work, the alkaline refining of arsenic in crude lead was studied with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate as alkaline refining agents. Taking the arsenic removal rate as the research object, the effects of reaction temperature, holding time, Na2CO3:NaOH, the dosage of refining agent were investigated. The arsenic removal rate is 79.09% under the optimum experimental conditions as follows: reaction temperature 823 K, holding time 60 min, Na2CO3:NaOH 1:4, refining agent dosage 10%. The oxidation purification mechanism of arsenic was studied by XPS, SEM-EDS, XRD and FT-IR. The results show that arsenic in the crude lead is gradually oxidized by oxygen and lead oxide during arsenic removal process, and the arsenic trioxide is eventually converted into sodium arsenate (Na3AsO4) and lead arsenate (Pb2As2O7) in the slag.

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